short timescale, potentially leading to what some dub a “digital Pearl Harbor” (that is, a catastrophic event whose occurrence can be unambiguously traced to flaws in cybersecurity)—and that the nation’s IT vendors and users (both individual and corporate) would have to respond very quickly if and when such threats emerged. Therefore, a robust research program that addresses both current and future possible threats driven by the high-end threat is necessary to provide the technological underpinnings of such a response. Moreover, it suggests a research agenda that is necessarily broader and deeper than would otherwise be the case if the threat were known with high confidence to be limited to that posed by hackers and ordinary criminals.

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