were made to other government agencies, they were denied because the requests were outside the organization’s authority or guidelines. She added that leaders, especially political leaders, are frequently blamed for not being able to act in a disaster, but they are dealing with policies, regulations, and guidelines that must work from within. Dr. Robinson noted that in times of disaster, we need to give flexibility and authority to leaders so they can make quick decisions.


Mr. Sanddal closed the meeting, thanking attendees for their participation. He noted that the day-to-day work of providing care for the sick and injured in the United States is held together by a very fragile system of good will and ingenuity. The IOM committee and many of the workshop presenters provided direction and tools for improving emergency care and disaster preparedness, but now is the time for action.

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