Appendix B
NRC Phase II Survey and NRC Firm Survey

The first section of this appendix describes the methodology used to survey Phase II SBIR awards (also referred to as projects). The second part presents the results—first of the awards, or project, survey (NRC Phase II Survey), and then of the firm survey (NRC Firm Survey). (Appendix C presents the NRC Phase I survey.)

ABOUT THE SURVEYS

Starting Date and Coverage

The survey of SBIR Phase II awards was administered in 2005 and included awards made through 2001. This allowed most of the Phase II awarded projects (nominally two years) to be completed and provided some time for commercialization. The selection of the end date of 2001 was consistent with a GAO study, which in 1991, surveyed awards made through 1987.

A start date of 1992 was selected. The year 1992 for the earliest Phase II project was considered a realistic starting date for the coverage, allowing inclusion of the same (1992) projects as the Department of Defense (DoD) 1996 survey, and of the 1992 and 1993 projects surveyed in 1998 for the Small Business Administration (SBA). This adds to the longitudinal capacities of the study. The 10 years of Phase II coverage spanned the period of increased funding set-asides and the impact of the 1992 reauthorization. This time frame allowed for extended periods of commercialization and for a robust spectrum of economic conditions. Establishing 1992 as the cutoff date for starting the survey helped to avoid the problems from which older awards suffer, including meager early data collection



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 205
Appendix B NRC Phase II Survey and NRC Firm Survey The first section of this appendix describes the methodology used to survey Phase II SBIR awards (also referred to as projects). The second part presents the results—first of the awards, or project, survey (NRC Phase II Survey), and then of the firm survey (NRC Firm Survey). (Appendix C presents the NRC Phase I survey.) ABOuT THE SuRVEYS Starting Date and Coverage The survey of SBIR Phase II awards was administered in 2005 and included awards made through 2001. This allowed most of the Phase II awarded projects (nominally two years) to be completed and provided some time for commercial- ization. The selection of the end date of 2001 was consistent with a GAO study, which in 1991, surveyed awards made through 1987. A start date of 1992 was selected. The year 1992 for the earliest Phase II project was considered a realistic starting date for the coverage, allowing inclu- sion of the same (1992) projects as the Department of Defense (DoD) 1996 sur- vey, and of the 1992 and 1993 projects surveyed in 1998 for the Small Business Administration (SBA). This adds to the longitudinal capacities of the study. The 10 years of Phase II coverage spanned the period of increased funding set-asides and the impact of the 1992 reauthorization. This time frame allowed for extended periods of commercialization and for a robust spectrum of economic conditions. Establishing 1992 as the cutoff date for starting the survey helped to avoid the problems from which older awards suffer, including meager early data collection 0

OCR for page 205
0 APPENDIX B as well as potentially irredeemable data loss; the fact that some firms and princi- pal investigators (PIs) are no longer in place; and fading memories. Award Numbers While adding the annual awards numbers of the five agencies would seem to define the larger sample, the process was more complicated. Agency reports usually involve some estimating and anticipation of successful negotiation of selected proposals. Agencies rarely correct reports after the fact. Setting limita- tions on the number of projects to be surveyed from each firm required knowing how many awards each firm had received from all five agencies. Thus, the first step was to obtain all of the award databases from each agency and combine them into a single database. Defining the database was further complicated by variations in firm identification, location, phone numbers, and points of contact within individual agency databases. Ultimately, we determined that 4,085 firms had been awarded 11,214 Phase II awards (an average of 2.7 Phase II awards per firm) by the five agencies during the 1992–2001 time frame. Using the most recent awards, the firm information was updated to the most current contact information for each firm. Sampling Approaches and Issues The Phase II Survey used an array of sampling techniques to ensure adequate coverage of projects, to address a wide range both of outcomes and potential explanatory variables, and also to address the problem of skew. That is, a rela- tively small percentage of funded projects typically account for a large percentage of commercial impact in the field of advanced, high-risk technologies. • Random Samples. After integrating the 11,214 awards into a single data- base, a random sample of approximately 20 percent was sampled. Then a random sample of 20 percent was ensured for each year; e.g., 20 percent of the 1992 awards, of the 1993 awards, etc. Verifying the total sample one year at a time allowed improved ability to adapt to changes in the program over time, as otherwise the increased number of awards made in recent years might dominate the sample. • Random Sample by Agency. Surveyed awards were grouped by agency; additional respondents were randomly selected as required to ensure that at least 20 percent of each agency’s awards were included in the sample. • Firm Surveys. After the random selection, 100 percent of the Phase IIs that went to firms with only one or two awards were polled. These are the hardest firms to find for older awards. Address information is highly

OCR for page 205
07 APPENDIX B perishable, particularly for earlier award years. For firms that had more than two awards, 20 percent were selected, but no less than two. • Top Performers. The problem of skew was dealt with by ensuring that all Phase IIs known to meet a specific commercialization threshold (total of $10 million in the sum of sales plus additional investment) were surveyed (derived from the DoD commercialization database). Since 56 percent of all awards were in the random and firm samples described above, only 95 Phase IIs were added in this fashion. • Coding. The project database tracks the survey sample, which corre- sponds with each response. For example, it is possible for a randomly sampled project from a firm that had only two awards to be a top per- former. Thus, the response could be analyzed as a random sample for the program, a random sample for the awarding agency, a top performer, and as part of the sample of single or double winners. In addition, the database allows examination of the responses for the array of potential explanatory or demographic variables. • Total Number of Surveys. The approach described above generated a sample of 6,410 projects and 4,085 firm surveys—an average of 1.6 award surveys per firm. Each firm receiving at least one project survey also received a firm survey. Although this approach sampled more than 57 percent of the awards, multiple award winners, on average, were asked to respond to surveys covering about 20 percent of their projects. Administration of the Survey The questionnaire drew extensively from the one used in the 1999 National Research Council assessment of SBIR at the Department of Defense, The Small Business Innoation Research Program: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiatie.1 That questionnaire in turn built upon the question- naire for the 1991 GAO SBIR study. Twenty-four of the twenty-nine questions on the earlier NRC study were incorporated. The researchers added twenty-four new questions to attempt to understand both commercial and noncommercial aspects, including knowledge base impacts, of SBIR, and to gain insight into impacts of program management. Potential questions were discussed with each agency, and their input was considered. In determining questions that should be in the survey, the research team also considered which issues and questions were best examined 1NationalResearch Council, The Small Business Innoation Research Program: An Assessment of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiatie, Charles W. Wessner, ed., Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

OCR for page 205
0 APPENDIX B in the case studies and other research methodologies. Many of the resultant 33 Phase II Survey questions and 15 Firm Survey questions had multiple parts. The surveys were administered online, using a Web server. The formatting, encoding and administration of the survey was subcontracted to BRTRC, Inc., of Fairfax, Virginia. There are many advantages to online surveys (including cost, speed, and possibly response rates). Response rates become clear fairly quickly, and can rapidly indicate needed follow up for nonrespondents. Hyperlinks provide ampli- fying information, and built-in quality checks control the internal consistency of the responses. Finally, online surveys allow dynamic branching of question sets, with some respondents answering selected subsets of questions but not others, depending on prior responses. Prior to the survey, we recognized two significant advantages of a paper sur- vey over an online one. For every firm (and thus every award), the agencies had provided a mailing address. Thus surveys could be addressed to the firm president or CEO at that address. That senior official could then forward the survey to the correct official within the firm for completion. For an online survey we needed to know the email address of the correct official. Also each firm needed a password to protect its answers. We had an SBIR point of contact (POC) and an email address and a password for every firm, which had submitted for a DoD SBIR 1999 survey. However, we had only limited email addresses and no passwords for the remainder of the firms. For many, the email addresses that we did have were those of principal investigators rather than an official of the firm. The deci- sion to use an online survey meant that the first step of survey distribution was an outreach effort to establish contact with the firms. Outreach by Mail This outreach phase began with establishing a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) registration Web site which allowed each firm to establish a POC, an email address, and a password. Next, the Study Director, Dr. Charles Wessner, sent a letter to those firms for which email contacts were not available. Ultimately, only 150 of the 2,0802 firms provided POC/email after receipt of this letter. The U.S. Postal Service returned 650 of those letters as invalid addresses. Each returned letter required thorough research by calling the agency-provided phone number for the firm, then using the Central Contractor Registration database, Business. com (powered by Google), and Switchboard.com to try to find correct address information. When an apparent match was found, the firm was called to verify that it was, in fact, the firm, which had completed the SBIR. Two hundred thirty- seven of the 650 missing firms were so located. Another ten firms that had gone out of business and had no POC were located. 2The letter was also erroneously sent to an additional 43 firms that had received only STTR awards.

OCR for page 205
09 APPENDIX B Two months after the first mailing, a second letter from the study director was mailed to firms whose first letter had not been returned, but which had not yet registered a POC. This letter also went to 176 firms, which had a POC email but no password, and to the 237 newly corrected addresses. The large number of letters (277) from this second mailing that were returned by the U.S. Postal Service, indicated that there were more bad addresses in the first mailing than were indicated by its returned mail. (If the initial letter was inadvertently deliv- ered, it may have been thrown away.) Of the 277 returned second letters, 58 firms were located using the search methodology described above. These firms were asked on the phone to go to the registration Web site to enter POC/email/ password. A total of 93 firms provided POC/email/password on the registration site subsequent to the second mailing. Three additional firms were identified as out of business. The final mailing, a week before survey, was sent to those firms that had not received either of the first two letters. It announced the study/survey and requested support of the 1,888 CEOs for which we had assumed good POC/email information from the DoD SBIR submission site. That letter asked the recipients to provide new contact information at the DoD submission site if the firm infor- mation had changed since their last submission. One hundred seventy-three of these letters were returned. We were able to find new addresses for 53 of these, and to ask those firms to update their information. One hundred fifteen firms could not be found, and 5 more were identified as out of business. The three mailings had demonstrated that at least 1,100 (27 percent) of the mailing addresses were in error, 734 of which firms could not be found, and 18 were reported to be out of business. Outreach by Email We began Internet contact by emailing the 1,888 DoD POCs to verify their email and to give them an opportunity to identify a new POC. Four hundred ninety-four of those emails bounced. The next email went to 788 email addresses that we had received from agencies as PI emails. We asked that the PI have the correct company POC identify themselves at the NAS Update registration site. One hundred eighty-eight of these emails bounced. After a more detailed search of the list used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to send out their survey, we identified 83 additional PIs and sent them the PI email discussed above. Email to the POCs not on the DoD Submission site resulted in 110 more POCs/emails/ passwords being registered on the NAS registration site. We began the survey at the end of February with an email to 100 POCs as a beta test and followed that with another email to 2,041 POCs (total of 2,141) a week later.

OCR for page 205
0 APPENDIX B Survey Responses By August 5, 2005, five months after release of the survey, 1,239 firms had begun and 1,149 firms had completed at least 14 of 15 questions on the Firm Survey. Project surveys were begun on 1,916 Phase II awards. Of the 4,085 firms that received Phase II SBIR awards from DoD, NIH, NASA, NSF, or DoE from 1992 to 2001, an additional 7 firms were identified as out of business (total of 25), and no email addresses could be found for 893. For an additional 500 firms, the best email addresses that were found were also undeliverable. These 1,418 firms could not be contacted and thus had no opportunity to complete the surveys. Of these firms, 585 had mailing addresses known to be bad. The 1,418 firms that could not be contacted were responsible for 1,885 of the individual awards in the sample. Using the same methodology as the GAO had used in the 1992 report of their 1991 survey of SBIR, undeliverables and out of business firms were eliminated prior to determining the response rate. Although 4,085 firms were sur- veyed, 1,418 firms were eliminated as described. This left 2,667 firms, of which 1,239 responded, representing a 46 percent response rate by firms,3 which could respond. Similarly, when the awards, which were won by firms in the undeliver- able category, were eliminated (6408 minus 1885), this left 4,523 projects, of which 1,916 responded, representing a 42 percent response rate. Figure App-B-1 displays by agency the number of Phase II awards in the sample, the number of those awards, which by having good email addresses had the opportunity to respond, and the number that responded.4 Percentages displayed are the percent- age of awards with good addresses, the percentage of the sample that responded, and the responses as a percentage of awards with the opportunity to respond. The NRC Methodology report had assumed a response rate of about 20 percent. Considering the length of the survey and its voluntary nature, the rate achieved was relatively high and reflects both the interest of the participants in the SBIR program and the extensive follow-up efforts. At the same time, the pos- sibility of response biases that could significantly affect the survey results must be recognized. For example, it may be possible that some of the firms that could not be found have been unsuccessful and folded. It may also be possible that unsuccessful firms were less likely to respond to the survey. 3Firm information and response percentages are not displayed in Figure 1, which displays by agency, since many firms received awards from multiple agencies. 4The average firm size for awards, which responded, was 37 employees. Nonresponding awards came from firms that averaged 38 employees. Since responding Phase II were more generally more recent than nonresponding, and awards have gradually grown in size, the difference in average award size ($655,525 for responding and $649,715 for nonresponding) seems minor.

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B TABLE App-B-1 NRC Phase II Survey Responses by Agency as of August 4, 2005 Percentage of Sample Awards Awards Answered Surveys Surveys as a Phase II with Good with Good Survey as a Percentage Sample Email Email as of Percentage of Awards Agency Size Addresses Addresses 8/4/2005 of Sample Contacted DoD 3,055 2,191 72 920 30 42 NIH 1,680 1,127 67 496 30 44 NASA 779 534 69 181 23 34 NSF 457 336 74 162 35 48 DoE 439 335 76 157 36 47 Total 6,408 4,523 70 1,916 30 42

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B NRC Phase II Survey Results NOTE: RESuLTS ARE FOR NSF. SuRVEY RESPONSES APPEAR IN BOLD, AND ExPLANATORY NOTES ARE IN A TYPEWRITER FONT. Project Information 162 respondents answered the first question. Since respondents are directed to skip certain questions based on prior answers, the number that responded varies by question. Also, some respondents did not complete their surveys. 146 com- pleted all applicable questions. Unless otherwise indicated, 162 is used as the denominator in computing averages. Where appropri- ate, the basis for calculations is provided after the question. Part I. Current status of the Project. 1. What is the current status of the project funded by the referenced SBIR grant? Select the one best answer. Percentages are based on the 162 respondents who answered this question a. 1% Project has not yet completed Phase II. Go to question . b. 20% Efforts at this company have been discontinued. No sales or addi- tional funding resulted from this project. Go to question . c. 10% Efforts at this company have been discontinued. The project did result in sales, licensing of technology, or additional funding. Go to ques- tion . d. 28% Project is continuing postPhase II technology development. Go to question . e. 19% Commercialization is underway. Go to question . f. 22% Products/Processes/ Services are in use by target population/cus- tomer/consumers. Go to question . 2. Did the reasons for discontinuing this project include any of the following? PLEASE SELECT YES OR NO FOR EACH REASON AND NOTE THE ONE PRIMARY REASON. 48 projects were discontinued. The % below is the percent of the discontinued projects that responded with the indicated response.

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B Primary Yes No Reason a. Technical failure or difficulties 33% 67% 19% b. Market demand too small 42% 58% 17% c. Level of technical risk too high 21% 79% 0% d. Not enough funding 48% 52% 13% e. Company shifted priorities 40% 60% 8% f. Principal investigator left 17% 83% 6% g. Project goal was achieved (e.g., prototype delivered for 31% 69% 6% federal agency use) h. Licensed to another company 21% 79% 10% i. Product, process, or service not competitive 29% 71% 6% j. Inadequate sales capability 15% 85% 0% k. Other (please specify): _____________________________ 19% 81% 15% The next question to be answered depends on the answer to Question . If c., go to Question . If b, skip to Question . Part II. Commercialization activities and planning. Questions 3-7 concern actual sales to date resulting from the technology devel- oped during this project. Sales includes all sales of a product, process, or service, to federal or private sector customers resulting from the technology developed during this Phase II project. A sale also includes licensing, the sale of technology or rights, etc. 3. Has your company and/or licensee had any actual sales of products, proc- esses, services or other sales incorporating the technology developed during this project? Select all that apply. This question was not answered for those projects still in Phase II (1%) or for projects, which were discontinued without sales or additional funding (20%). The denominator for the percentages below is all projects that answered the survey. Only 79% of all projects, which answered the survey, could respond to this question. 25% a. No sales to date, but sales are expected. Skip to Question  6% b. No sales to date nor are sales expected. Skip to Question  38% c. Sales of product(s) 3% d. Sales of process(es) 22% e. Sales of services(s) 10% f. Other sales (e.g. rights to technology, licensing, etc.) From the combination of responses 1b, 3a, and 3b, we can conclude that 26% had no sales and expect none, and that 25% had no sales but expect sales.

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B 4. For your company and/or your licensee(s), when did the first sale occur, and what is the approximate amount of total sales resulting from the technology developed during this project? If multiple SBIR grants contributed to the ultimate commercial outcome, report only the share of total sales appropriate to this SBIR project. Enter the requested information for your company in the first column and, if applicable and if known, for your licensee(s) in the second column. Enter approximate dollars. If none, enter 0 (zero) Your Company Licensee(s) a. Year when first sale occurred 46% reported a year of first sale. 65% of these first sales occurred in 2000 or later. 21% reported a licensee year of first sale. 56% of these b. Total Sales Dollars of Product (s) Process(es) $ 332,364 $1,413,708 or Service(s) to date. (average of 162 survey respondents) Although 74 reported a year of first sale, only 30 reported sales >0. Their average sales were $ 769,186. Over half of the total sales dol- lars were due to 8 projects, each of which had $2,300,000 or more in sales. The highest reporting project had $4,757,000 in sales. Similarly only of the 34 projects that reported a year of first licensee sale, only 12 reported actual licensee sales >0. Their average sales were $19,085,065. Over half of the total sales dollars was due to 1 project, which had $200,000,000 or more licensee sales. $ 65,876 $ 4,148 c. Other Total Sales Dollars (e.g., Rights to technology, Sale of spin-off company, etc.) to date (average of 162 survey respondents) Combining the responses for b and c, the average for each of the 162 projects that responded to the survey is thus sales of over $398,000 by the SBIR company and over one million four hundred thousand dollars in sales by licensees. Display this box for Q 4 & 5 if project commercialization is known. Your company reported sales information to DoD as a part of an SBIR proposal or to NRC as a result of an earlier NRC request. This information may be useful in answering the prior question or the next question. You reported as of (date): DoD sales ($ amount), Other federal sales ($ amount), Export sales ($ amount), Private-Sector sales ($ amount), and other sales ($ amount).

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B 5. To date, approximately what percent of total sales from the technology developed during this project have gone to the following customers? If none enter 0 (zero). Round percentages. Answers should add to about 00%.5 162 firms responded to this question as to what percent of their sales went to each agency or sector 57% Domestic private sector 11% Department of Defense (DoD) 5% Prime contractors for DoD or NASA 1% NASA 1% Agency that granted the Phase II 2% Other federal agencies (Pull down) 4% State or local governments 11% Export markets 9% Other (Specify)_____________ The following questions identify the product, process, or service resulting from the project supported by the referenced SBIR grant, including its use in a fielded federal system or a federal acquisition program. 6. Is a federal system or acquisition program using the technology from this Phase II? If yes, please provide the name of the federal system or acquisition program that is using the technology. 4% reported use in a federal system or acqui- sition program. Did a commercial product result from this Phase II project? 13% reported 7. a commercial product. 8. If you have had no sales to date resulting from the technology developed during this project, what year do you expect the first sales for your company , or its licensee? Only firms that had no sales but answered that they expected sales got this question. 15% expected sales. The year of expected first sale is 85% of those expecting sales expected sales to occur before 2008. 5Please note�� If a �ASA S�I�� grant, the prime contractor�s line will state “Prime contractors for �ASA.” The “Agency that granted the Phase II” will only appear if it is not DoD or �ASA. The name of the actual granting agency will appear.

OCR for page 205
0 APPENDIX B Part IV. Other SBIR funding. 19. How many SBIR grants did your company receive prior to the Phase I that led to this Phase II? a. Number of previous Phase I grants. Average of 11. 38% had no prior Phase I, and another 38% had 5 or less prior Phase I. b. Number of previous Phase II grants. Average of 4. 55% had no prior Phase II, and another 30% had 5 or less prior Phase II. 20. How many SBIR grants has your company received that are related to the project/technology supported by this Phase II grant ? Average of 1; 49% had no prior a. Number of related Phase I grants related Phase I and another 47 % had 5 or less prior related Phase I Average of 1; 61% had no prior b. Number of related Phase II grants related Phase II and another 37 % had 5 or less prior related Phase II Part V. Funding and other assistance. 21. Prior to this SBIR Phase II grant, did your company receive funds for research or development of the technology in this project from any of the following sources? Of 151 respondents. a. 20% Prior SBIR (Excluding the Phase I, which proceeded this Phase II.) b. 13% Prior non-SBIR federal R&D c. 2% Venture Capital d. 15% Other private company e. 14% Private investor f. 35% Internal company investment (including borrowed money) g. 5% State or local government h. 4% College or University i. 9% Other Specify _________ Commercialization of the results of an SBIR project normally requires additional developmental funding. Questions 22 and 23 address additional funding. Addi- tional Developmental Funds include non-SBIR funds from federal or private sector sources, or from your own company, used for further development and/or commercialization of the technology developed during this Phase II project. 22. Have you received or invested any additional developmental funding in this project? a. 63% Yes Continue. b. 37% No Skip to Question .

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B 23. To date, what has been the total additional developmental funding for the technology developed during this project? Any entries in the Reported column are based on information previously reported by your firm to DoD or NAS. They are provided to assist you in completing the Developmental funding column. Previously reported information did not include investment by your company or personal investment. Please update this information to include breaking out Priate inestment and Other inestment by subcat- egory. Enter dollars proided by each of the listed sources. If none, enter 0 (zero). The dollars shown are determined by dividing the total funding in that category by the 162 respondents who started the survey to determine an average funding. �inety-three of these respondents reported any additional funding. Source Reported Developmental Funding $_ _, _ _ _, _ _ _ $ 248,077 a. Non-SBIR federal funds b. Private investment $_ _, _ _ _, _ _ _ $ 39,450 (1) U.S. venture capital $ 19,290 (2) Foreign investment $ 196,141 (3) Other Private equity (4) Other domestic private $ 57,925 company c. Other sources $_ _, _ _ _, _ _ _ (1) State or local $ 19,938 governments $ 617 (2) College or universities d. Not previously reported (1) Your own company (Including money $ 54,617 you have borrowed) $ 22,154 (2) Personal funds Total average additional developmental funding, all sources, per grant $ 658,214

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B 24. Did this grant identify matching funds or other types of cost sharing in the Phase II Proposal?6 a. 68% No matching funds/co-investment/cost sharing were identified in the proposal. If a, skip to question . b. 32% Although not a DoD Fast Track, matching funds/co-investment/ cost sharing were identified in the proposal. c. 0% Yes. This was a DoD Fast Track proposal. 25. Regarding sources of matching or co-investment funding that were proposed for Phase II, check all that apply. The percentages below are com- puted for those 48 projects, which reported matching funds. a. 38% Our own company provided funding (includes borrowed funds). b. 4% A federal agency provided non-SBIR funds. c. 58% Another company provided funding. d. 21% An angel or other private investment source provided funding. e. 2% Venture Capital provided funding. 26. Did you experience a gap between the end of Phase I and the start of Phase II? a. 81% Yes Continue. b. 19% No Skip to question 9. The average gap reported by 121 respondents was 8 months. 5% of the respondents reported a gap of two or more years. 27. Project history. Please fill in for all dates that have occurred. This informa- tion is meaningless in aggregate. It has to be examined proj- ect by project in conjunction with the date of the Phase I end and the date of the Phase II grant to calculate the gaps. Date Phase I ended Month/ year Date Phase II proposal submitted Month /year 28. If you experienced funding gap between Phase I and Phase II for this grant, select all answers that apply. a. 28% Stopped work on this project during funding gap. b. 37% Continued work at reduced pace during funding gap. c. 5% Continued work at pace equal to or greater than Phase I pace during funding gap. d. 2% Received bridge funding between Phase I and II. e. 1% Company ceased all operations during funding gap. The words underlined appear only for DoD grants. 6

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B 29. Did you receive assistance in Phase I or Phase II proposal preparation for this grant? Of 136 respondents. a. 3% State agency provided assistance. b. 1% Mentor company provided assistance. c. 0% Regional association provided assistance. d. 5% University provided assistance. e. 91% We received no assistance in proposal preparation. Was this assistance useful? a. 62% Very useful b. 38% Somewhat useful c. 0% Not useful 30. In executing this grant, was there any involvement by universities faculty, graduate students, and/or university developed technologies? Of 146 respondents. 47% Yes 53% No 31. This question addresses any relationships between your firm’s efforts on this Phase II project and any University (ies) or College (s). The percentages are computed against the 146 who answered question 30, not just those who answered yes to question 30. Select all that apply. a. 1% The Principal Investigator (PI) for this Phase II project was at the time of the project a faculty member. b. 5% The Principal Investigator (PI) for this Phase II project was at the time of the project an adjunct faculty member. c. 37% Faculty member(s) or adjunct faculty member (s) work on this Phase II project in a role other than PI, e.g., consultant. d. 27% Graduate students worked on this Phase II project. e. 25% University/College facilities and/or equipment were used on this Phase II project. f. 5% The technology for this project was licensed from a University or College. g. 14% The technology for this project was originally developed at a University or College by one of the percipients in this phase II project. h. 17% A University or College was a subcontractor on this Phase II project. In remarks enter the name of the University or College that is referred to in any blocks that are checked above. If more than one institution is referred to, briefly indicate the name and role of each.

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B 32. Did commercialization of the results of your SBIR grant require FDA approval? Yes 4% In what stage of the approval process are you for commercializing this SBIR grant? a. 0% Applied for approval b. 1% Review ongoing c. 0% Approved d. 3% Not Approved e. 0% IND: Clinical trials f. 1% Other

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B NRC Firm Survey Results NOTE: ALL RESuLTS APPEAR IN BOLD. TWO SETS OF RESuLTS ARE REPORTED—THOSE FOR ALL 5 AGENCIES (DOD, NIH, NSF, DOE, AND NASA) AND THOSE FOR ONLY NSF. NSF RESuLTS APPEAR IN PARENTHESES. (137) 1,239 firms began the survey. 1,149 (137) completed through question 14. 1,108 (130) completed all questions. If your firm is registered in the DoD SBIR/STTR Submission Web site, the information filled in below is based on your latest update as of Septem- ber 2004 on that site. Since you may have entered this information many months ago, you may edit this information to make it correct. In conjunc- tion with that information, the following additional information will help us understand how the SBIR program is contributing to the formation of new small businesses active in federal R&D and how they impact the economy. questions A-G are autofilled from Firm database, when available. A. Company Name: _______________________________________________ B. Street Address: ________________________________________________ C. City: _________________________________ State: ____ Zip: _________ D. Company Point of Contact: ______________________________________ E. Company Point of Contact Email: _________________________________ F. Company Point of Contact Phone: (___) ___ - ____ Ext: ______________ G. The year your company was founded: ___________ 1. Was your company founded because of the SBIR Program? a. 79% (80%) No b. 8% (7%) Yes c. 13% (13%) Yes, In part 2. Information on company founders. Please enter zeros or the correct number in each pair of blocks. a. Number of founders. 5% (1%) unknown 40% (47%) 1 30% (25%) 2 13% (16%) 3 8% (7%) 4 2% (1%) 5 2% (3%) >5 Average = 2 (2) founders/firm

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B b. Number of other companies started by one or more of the founders. 5% (0%) unknown 46% (44%) started no other firms 23% (26%) started 1 other firm 13% (14%) started 2 other firms 7% (4%) started 3 other firms 3% (6%) started 4 other firms 3% (7%) started 5 or more other firms Average number of other firms founded is one. (1%) c. Number of founders who have a business background. 5% (0%) Unknown 50% (47%) No founder known to have business background 30% (37%) One founder with business background 14% (15%) More than one founder with business background d. Number of founders who have an academic background 5% (0%) Unknown 29% (32%) No founder known to have academic background 38% (38%) One founder with academic background 28% (30%) More than one founder with academic background (Note: Business only=20%; Academic only=36%; Both business and academic=31%; Neither=12%). 3. What was the most recent employment of the company founders prior to founding this company? Select all that apply. Total >100% since many companies had more than one founder. a. 65% (68%) Other private company b. 36% (40%) College or University c. 9% (4%) Government d. 10% (8%) Other 4. How many SBIR and/or STTR awards has your firm received from the fed- eral government? a. Phase I: _________ Average number of Phase I reported was 14. 13% (14%) 1 Phase I 34% (32%) 2 to 5 Phase I 24% (15%) 6 to 10 Phase I 14% (14%) 11 to 20 Phase I 11% (10%) 21 to 50 Phase I 3% (7%) 51 to 100 Phase I 2% (8%) >100 Phase I Five firms reported >300 Phase I (Note: total=4,387; av=31; range 1 to 462.)

OCR for page 205
7 APPENDIX B What year did you receive your first Phase I Award? _______ 3% (7%) reported 1983 or sooner. 33% (49%) reported 1984 to 1992. 40% (45%) reported 1993 to 1997. 24% (36%) reported 1998 or later. b. Phase II: ________ Average number of Phase II reported was 7 27% (23%) 1 Phase II 44% (40%) 2 to 5 Phase II 15% (12%) 6 to 10 Phase II 8% (7%) 11 to 20 Phase II 5% (10%) 21 to 50 Phase II 1% (7%) >50 Phase II Four firms reported >100 Phase II (Note: total=1,873; average=14; range=1 to 182.) What year did you receive your first Phase II Award? _______ 3% (2%) reported 1983 or sooner. 22% (28%) reported 1984 to 1992. 35% (30%) reported 1993 to 1997. 41% (56%) reported 1998 or later. 5. What percentage of your company’s growth would you attribute to the SBIR program after receiving its first SBIR award? a. 31% (27%) Less than 25% b. 25% (28%) 25% to 50% c. 20% (24%) 51% to 75% d. 24% (22%) More than 75% 6. Number of company employees (including all affiliates): a. At the time of your company’s first Phase II Award: ____ 56% (60%) 5 or less 28% (28%) 6 to 20 9% (7%) 21 to 50 8% (6%) > 50 Fourteen firms 1.3% had greater than 200 employees at time of first Phase. (Note: total of 1,728, average of 13; range of 1-175; 12% had only 1 employee.)

OCR for page 205
 APPENDIX B b. Currently: ______ 29% (31%) 5 or less 37% (35%) 6 to 20 17% (15%) 21 to 50 13% (15%) 51 to 200 5% (3%) > 200 Eleven firms report over 500 current employees. (Note: total =4,951; av of 36; range 1-750; 7% had only 1 employee.) 7. What Percentage of your Total R&D Effort (Man-hours of Scientists and Engineers) was devoted to SBIR activities during the most recent fiscal year?___% 22% (24%) 0% of R&D was SBIR during most recent fiscal year. 16% (10%) 1% to 10% of R&D was SBIR during most recent fiscal year. 11% (10%) 11% to 25% of R&D was SBIR during most recent fiscal year. 18% (20%) 26% to 50% of R&D was SBIR during most recent fiscal year. 14% (20%) 51% to 75% of R&D was SBIR during most recent fiscal year. 19% (16%) >75% of R&D was SBIR during most recent fiscal year. 8. What was your company’s total revenue for the last fiscal year? a. 10% (13%) <$100,000 b. 18% (18%) $100,000 - $499,999 c. 16% (16%) $500,000 - $999,999 d. 33% (34%) $1,000,000 - $4,999,999 e. 14% (18%) $5,000,000 - $19,999,999 f. 6% (10%) $20,000,000 - $99,999,999 g. 1% (4%) $100,000,000 + h. 0.4% (0%) Proprietary information 9. What percentage of your company’s revenues during its last fiscal year is federal SBIR and/or STTR funding (Phase I and/or Phase II)? _____________ 30% (28%) 0% of revenue was SBIR (Phase I or II) during most recent fiscal year. 17% (14%) 1% to 10% of revenue was SBIR (Phase I or II) during most recent fiscal year. 11% (7%) 11% to 25% of revenue was SBIR (Phase I or II) during most recent fiscal year.

OCR for page 205
9 APPENDIX B 13% (14%) 26% to 50% of revenue was SBIR (Phase I or II) during most recent fiscal year. 13% (21%) 51% to 75% of revenue was SBIR (Phase I or II) during most recent fiscal year. 13% (11%) 76% to 99% of revenue was SBIR (Phase I or II) during most recent fiscal year. 4% (4%) 100% of revenue was SBIR (Phase I or II) during most recent fiscal year. 10. This question eliminated from the survey as redundant. 11. Which, if any, of the following has your company experienced as a result of the SBIR Program? Select all that apply. a. Fifteen (4) firms made an initial public stock offering in calendar year Seven reported prior to 2000; two in 2000; four in 2004; and one in both 2006 and 2007? (1 in 2004; 1 in 2000; 1 in 1994; 1 in 1983) b. Six (2) planned an initial public stock offering for 2005/2006. c. 14% (18%) Established one or more spin-off companies. How many spin-off companies? 242 (49) Spin-off companies were formed. d. 84% (77%) reported None of the above. 12. How many patents have resulted, at least in part, from your company’s SBIR and/or STTR awards? 43% (26%) reported no patents resulting from SBIR/STTR. 16% (16%) reported one patent resulting from SBIR/STTR. 27% (29%) reported 2 to 5 patents resulting from SBIR/STTR. 13% (20%) reported 6 to 25 patents resulting from SBIR/STTR. 1 % (8%) reported >25 patents resulting from SBIR/STTR. A total of over 3,350 (842) patents were reported; an average of (6) almost 3 per firm; (range=0 to 66) The remaining questions address how market analysis and sales of the commer- cial results of SBIR are accomplished at your company.

OCR for page 205
0 APPENDIX B 13. This company normally first determines the potential commercial market for an SBIR product, process or service a. 66% (69%) Prior to submitting the Phase I proposal b. 21% (22%) Prior to submitting the Phase II proposal c. 9% (9%) During Phase II d. 3% (1%) After Phase II 14. Market research/analysis at this company is accomplished by: (Select all that apply.) a. 28% (28%) The Director of Marketing or similar corporate position b. 7% (5%) One or more employees as their primary job c. 41% (40%) One or more employees as an additional duty d. 23% (26%) Consultants e. 53% (55%) The Principal Investigator f. 67% (71%) The company President or CEO g. 1% (0%) None of the above 15. Sales of the product(s), process(es) or service(s) that result from commer- cialising an SBIR award at this company are accomplished by: Select all that apply. a. 35% (39%) An in-house sales force b. 52% (50%) Corporate officers c. 30% (28%) Other employees d. 30% (36%) Independent distributors or other company (ies) with which we have marketing alliances e. 26% (34%) Other company (ies), which incorporate our product into their own. f. 9% (12%) Spin-off company (ies) g. 26% (39%) Licensing to another company h. 11% (8%) None of the above