Appendix C
Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques

TABLE C.1 CQA Techniques for End-of-Construction Barrier Element Integrity

Barrier Element

CQA Integrity Monitoring Techniques

Compacted low-permeability soil

In situ density and water content testing; in situ hydraulic conductivity testing using infiltrometers, pan lysimeters, and borehole permeameters; physical sampling and laboratory testing for index properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity

Evapotranspirative cover soil

In situ water content testing; in situ flux rate testing using pan lysimeters; physical sampling and laboratory testing for index properties, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, and for the soil water characteristic curve

Geomembranes

Nondestructive seam testing; physical sampling and laboratory testing of seams; electrical leak detection testing; interface shear testing

Geosynthetic clay liners

Physical sampling and testing for bentonite unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity; interface shear testing

Soil-bentonite walls

Sounding of the trench prior to backfill placement, physical sampling, and testing backfill soil from the borrow pit for saturated hydraulic conductivity; physical sampling and testing backfill soil from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity; in situ saturated hydraulic conductivity testing of the wall backfill

Cement-bentonite walls

Sounding of the trench prior to backfill placement, physical sampling and testing of the cement-bentonite backfill for saturated hydraulic conductivity; physical sampling and testing of cores from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity

Soil-mixed walls

Physical sampling and testing of cores from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity



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Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers Appendix C Construction Quality Assurance Monitoring Techniques TABLE C.1 CQA Techniques for End-of-Construction Barrier Element Integrity Barrier Element CQA Integrity Monitoring Techniques Compacted low-permeability soil In situ density and water content testing; in situ hydraulic conductivity testing using infiltrometers, pan lysimeters, and borehole permeameters; physical sampling and laboratory testing for index properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity Evapotranspirative cover soil In situ water content testing; in situ flux rate testing using pan lysimeters; physical sampling and laboratory testing for index properties, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, and for the soil water characteristic curve Geomembranes Nondestructive seam testing; physical sampling and laboratory testing of seams; electrical leak detection testing; interface shear testing Geosynthetic clay liners Physical sampling and testing for bentonite unit weight and saturated hydraulic conductivity; interface shear testing Soil-bentonite walls Sounding of the trench prior to backfill placement, physical sampling, and testing backfill soil from the borrow pit for saturated hydraulic conductivity; physical sampling and testing backfill soil from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity; in situ saturated hydraulic conductivity testing of the wall backfill Cement-bentonite walls Sounding of the trench prior to backfill placement, physical sampling and testing of the cement-bentonite backfill for saturated hydraulic conductivity; physical sampling and testing of cores from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity Soil-mixed walls Physical sampling and testing of cores from the wall for saturated hydraulic conductivity

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