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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science (BER) Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER64259; Environmental Protection Agency, Grant No. CR-83211601; National Science Foundation, Grant No. CMS-0243338; and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Award No. NRC-04-02-081. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Neither the U.S. Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof.

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Cover: Scene from the Newcastle golf course, which was built near Seattle, Washington, over a landfill containing demolition and inert construction waste. Photograph courtesy of OK: Golf/Golf Club at Newcastle.

Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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