About the Authors

Peter A. Ward (Chair), MD, IOM, Professor, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan. He has extensive experience with laboratory animal welfare issues through his past membership and chairmanship of ILAR Council. He served as Chair of the ILAR Committee to Update Science, Medicine, and Animals, as well as Chair of the ILAR Committee on Methods for Producing Monoclonal Antibodies. He also has an extensive background in immunopathology, inflammation, and mechanisms of antibody formation.


Robert J. Blanchard, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Hawaii. He has extensive experience managing animals in environments that model chronic social stress, fear, aggression, and defense. His research is focused on pharmacological and neural control of natural behavior, animal models of emotion, and ethoexperimental analysis of aggression and defense. He is a past president of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society and the International Society for Research on Aggression. Dr. Blanchard has also served on the editorial boards for Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Journal of Comparative Psychology, and Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior.


Valerie Bolivar, PhD, is a Principal Investigator and Director of the Mouse Behavioral Phenotype Analysis Core at Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences at the State University of New York School of Public Health. Her research is on the behavioral differences in rodents associated with different



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About the Authors Peter A. Ward (Chair), MD, IOM, Professor, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan. He has extensive experience with laboratory animal welfare issues through his past membership and chairmanship of ILAR Council. He served as Chair of the ILAR Committee to Update Science, Medicine, and Animals, as well as Chair of the ILAR Committee on Methods for Producing Monoclonal Antibodies. He also has an extensive background in immunopathology, inflammation, and mecha- nisms of antibody formation. Robert J. blanchard, PhD, is Professor of Psychology at the University of Hawaii. He has extensive experience managing animals in environments that model chronic social stress, fear, aggression, and defense. His research is focused on pharmacological and neural control of natural behavior, animal models of emotion, and ethoexperimental analysis of aggression and defense. He is a past president of the International Behavioral Neuro- science Society and the International Society for Research on Aggression. Dr. Blanchard has also served on the editorial boards for Neuroscience and Biobehaioral Reiews, Journal of Comparatie Psychology, and Pharma- cology, Biochemistry & Behaior. valerie bolivar, PhD, is a Principal Investigator and Director of the Mouse Behavioral Phenotype Analysis Core at Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences at the State University of New York School of Public Health. Her research is on the behavioral differences in rodents associated with different 113

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114 RECOGNITION AND ALLEVIATION OF DISTRESS IN LABORATORY ANIMALS genetic backgrounds and disease states. She is particularly interested in the role of genetics on complex behavioral phenotypes and has been working with mouse models of human disease for over 16 years. She has previ- ously served as a member of the research ethics committee at St. Mary’s University, Nova Scotia, Canada. Marilyn J. brown, DVM, is Executive Director of Animal Welfare and Training at Charles River Laboratories. She is a Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. She has experience dealing with issues pertaining to animal welfare, as well as serving on a number of NRC committees, including the ILAR Committee to Revise the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996). She also served as a reviewer for the 1992 ILAR report Recognition and Alleiation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Dr. Brown has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including being awarded the title of De Facto Diplomate for the European College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. Fon Chang, DVM, is Senior Staff Veterinarian at AstraZeneca Pharmaceu- ticals LP. He completed residencies in Laboratory Animal Medicine and in Animal Behavior at UC-Davis. His experience on animal welfare and behavior issues includes behavioral management of research animals and behavioral phenotyping of genetically engineered mice. Dr. Chang’s profes- sional affiliations include the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, the American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners, and the American Veterinary Medical Association. James P. Herman, PhD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Labo- ratory of Stress Neurobiology at the University of Cincinnati. His research pertains to rodents and the structural and functional neurocircuitry involved in the stress response, molecular effects of stress in the brain, and gender differences in the stress response. Dr. Herman was recently a panel member of the American Physiological Society Workshop on Managing Pain and Distress in Experimental Animals, and has been an invited speaker on the topic of distress for the AALAS and PRIM&R/ARENA national meetings. Robert Hubrecht, PhD, has been with the Universities Federation for Ani- mal Welfare (UFAW) since 1992, where he has served as Deputy Director since 1996 (UFAW is a unique scientific and technical animal welfare organization in the UK, which uses scientific knowledge to improve the welfare of animals kept as pets, in zoos and laboratories, and on farms). He has a long career in the fields of animal welfare and ethology. This includes, in addition to a number of academic positions, service as a member of the Animal Procedures Committee (APC). The APC advises the UK Home

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11 ABOUT THE AUTHORS Secretary on matters relating to the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, which regulates the use of animals in research in the UK. He has also served as a chair or member of several subcommittees of the APC, including the Housing and Husbandry Subcommittee, the Primates Subcommittee, the Severity Working Group, and the Working Group on the Use of Marmosets. Dr. Hubrecht has published numerous articles on the subject of animal behavior. He was also a recipient of the GlaxoSmithKline Animal Welfare Prize in 2004. David M. Lawson, PhD, is Professor of Physiology at Wayne State Univer- sity School of Medicine, Detroit. He has extensive knowledge of labora- tory animal physiology and the effect of husbandry and enrichment on physiology. His research focuses on integrative responses of experimental rodents to common experimental manipulations and housing conditions. Dr. Lawson is a member of the American Physiological Society, The Endo- crine Society, and the American Association of Laboratory Animal Science. During the period 1978-2006, he served for 21 years as member or chair of the University’s institutional animal care and use committee. Steven F. Maier, PhD, is a University of Colorado Distinguished Professor and the Director of the Center for Neuroscience. His research is focused on maladaptive behaviors, analgesia, and the effect of stress on immune func- tion and neurochemistry. Dr. Maier codeveloped the first animal model of learned helplessness and devised ways to alleviate this type of distress. He has received numerous awards including the Norman Cousins and the Neal Miller Distinguished Lectureships, and is a Fellow of the American Psycho- logical Association, the American Physiological Association, and APA, APS, and AAAS. He has been on the editorial boards of numerous journals and authored or coauthored over 250 scientific papers and 300 abstracts. David Morton, PhD, is professor emeritus of biomedical science and ethics at the University of Birmingham in the UK and a laboratory animal veteri- narian. His research focuses on the recognition of adverse states, such as distress in animals, their assessment and alleviation, their practical use in animal research such as in the development of humane endpoints, and their impact on science and the animals. He is a member of the European Food Standards Authorities Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare, the UK’s Farm Animal Welfare Council, the Companion Animal Welfare Coun- cil, sits on various human and animal ethics committees, and has received several national and international awards for his work on the Three Rs. He has published more than 200 papers and chapters, and recently chaired European committees on primate and rabbit welfare, and various aspects of animal research for the revision of the EU Directive.

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116 RECOGNITION AND ALLEVIATION OF DISTRESS IN LABORATORY ANIMALS Steven M. Niemi, DVM, is Director of the Center for Comparative Medi- cine at Massachusetts General Hospital and an Instructor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Niemi is a Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine and served on its Board of Directors. He is an Ad hoc Consultant and Specialist with AAALAC International. He is a past President of the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare and a member of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, American Veteri- nary Medical Association, and Veterinary Cancer Society. Dr. Niemi was selected because of his experience in refinement and reduction in animal testing, alternatives to animal experimentation, and use of nontraditional laboratory animals, as well as his unique perspectives from his professional experience with both academic and industrial research institutions. Melinda Novak, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. Her research examines the psychopathology of monkeys, with an emphasis on self-injurious behavior, and the effects of early experience on cognitive and social development in rhesus monkeys. She has previously served as President of the American Society of Primatologists, as well as chair or member of a number of com- mittees, including the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s Advisory Panel on the Psychological Well-being of Captive Primates, the ILAR Committee on Psychological Well-being of Captive Primates, and the Board of Trustees of AAALAC International. Stephen L. Zawistowski, PhD, is Senior Vice President and Science Advisor of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. He has worked extensively in animal behavior and welfare. Dr. Zawistowski is a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist and is the Chairman of the Animal Behavior Society’s Board of Professional Certification and a Certified Tech- nical Animal Rescue Specialist as well. He has been a member of several animal protectionist organizations and committees, including the Scientific Advisory Panel for the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA), the Scientific Advisory Committee for Humane Farm Animal Care, and the National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. He is a founding co- editor of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science and served on the BANR/ILAR committee that reviewed the Smithsonian’s National Zoological Park.