genetic backgrounds and disease states. She is particularly interested in the role of genetics on complex behavioral phenotypes and has been working with mouse models of human disease for over 16 years. She has previously served as a member of the research ethics committee at St. Mary’s University, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Marilyn J. Brown, DVM, is Executive Director of Animal Welfare and Training at Charles River Laboratories. She is a Diplomate of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine. She has experience dealing with issues pertaining to animal welfare, as well as serving on a number of NRC committees, including the ILAR Committee to Revise the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996). She also served as a reviewer for the 1992 ILAR report Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. Dr. Brown has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including being awarded the title of De Facto Diplomate for the European College of Laboratory Animal Medicine.

Fon Chang, DVM, is Senior Staff Veterinarian at AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. He completed residencies in Laboratory Animal Medicine and in Animal Behavior at UC-Davis. His experience on animal welfare and behavior issues includes behavioral management of research animals and behavioral phenotyping of genetically engineered mice. Dr. Chang’s professional affiliations include the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, the American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners, and the American Veterinary Medical Association.

James P. Herman, PhD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Laboratory of Stress Neurobiology at the University of Cincinnati. His research pertains to rodents and the structural and functional neurocircuitry involved in the stress response, molecular effects of stress in the brain, and gender differences in the stress response. Dr. Herman was recently a panel member of the American Physiological Society Workshop on Managing Pain and Distress in Experimental Animals, and has been an invited speaker on the topic of distress for the AALAS and PRIM&R/ARENA national meetings.

Robert Hubrecht, PhD, has been with the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) since 1992, where he has served as Deputy Director since 1996 (UFAW is a unique scientific and technical animal welfare organization in the UK, which uses scientific knowledge to improve the welfare of animals kept as pets, in zoos and laboratories, and on farms). He has a long career in the fields of animal welfare and ethology. This includes, in addition to a number of academic positions, service as a member of the Animal Procedures Committee (APC). The APC advises the UK Home

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