Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, 1, 10

Autism, 35

Autonomic nervous system, 4, 28, 39, 40, 41

Avoidance/escape behavior, 20, 36, 96, 99, 105, 107

Avoiding/minimizing distress

in animal care, 5, 64-70

in animal use, 5, 70-75

in clinical sampling procedures, 36, 37-38, 39, 43, 70-71

enrichment, 5, 6, 7, 11, 19, 31, 32-33, 35, 63, 64, 66-67, 69, 75, 77, 90, 91, 96

in experimental design, 5, 6, 11-12, 22, 63, 70-74, 90

housing, 11, 18, 19, 43, 63, 65-66, 90

humane endpoints, 5, 11-12, 34, 63, 71, 88, 111

husbandry, 5, 6, 18, 19, 63, 64, 68, 69-70, 75, 90

interference with research aims, 63, 64, 67

minimally or noninvasive technologies, 5, 39, 74-75

pilot studies, 5, 67, 72

regulatory requirements, 1, 2, 5, 9-11, 12, 75, 77

research, 64

sample size determination, 63, 72-74

socialization, 5, 11, 19, 63, 68-69, 90

statistical analyses and, 5, 7, 12, 63, 72-74, 91

team approach, 5, 63

Three Rs, 5, 6, 63, 64, 89, 90

B

Bar chewing, 31, 32

Bar circling, 31

Barbering, excessive, 32

Behavior. See Abnormal behavior;

Normal behavior;

specific behaviors

assessment, 20

phenotyping, 104-105

Brain

function, 19 n.4, 21, 29, 31-32, 41

physiological response to stress, 39-40, 41, 87

size and structure, 28, 52

Brambell Committee, 18

Buprenorphine, 77

C

Cage cleaning, 69

Caloric restriction protocols, 34-35

Cardiovascular disease models, 75

Cats, 68, 102, 103

Chlorpromazine, 77

Coat/hair/fur

appearance, 4, 27, 28, 34, 105, 107, 109

sampling, 37, 38, 56, 70, 71

Cognitive deficits, 21, 27, 28, 52

Colitis, 39, 61

Clinical signs of distress.

See also Physiology

alleviating, 77

assessment tools, 102, 104

behavioral, 32-33, 34-35

identifying and interpreting, 43, 87-88, 95, 104

sampling procedures, 36, 37-38, 39, 43, 70-71

species-specific, 102

subclinical, 3, 16

Coprophagy, 32

Corticosteroid-binding globulin, 27

Corticosterone, 27, 37

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone, 29, 36, 37, 39, 40

Cortisol, 4, 29 n.1, 37, 38, 70-71

Cross fostering, 29-30

canaries, 30

finches, 30

goats, 30

mice, 30

rats, 30

Cytokines, 42

D

Decision and response algorithm, 43, 75, 76, 101

Defensive behavior, 36, 41, 99

Definitions

animal welfare, 17-21

and assessment of distress, 3, 18, 88

distress, 1, 3, 10, 11, 13-14, 15-17, 22, 88



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement