Research (NC3Rs).2 In the United States, the National Institutes of Health, Environmental Protection Agency, and other federal institutions have occasionally provided funding to develop or validate nonanimal or nonvertebrate alternatives. Funding for laboratory animal welfare research, however, is usually available only in small amounts from nongovernmental organizations such as the Animal Welfare Institute, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, and the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Given the impact of better animal welfare on science as well as the growing public interest in the treatment of laboratory animals, federal agencies and large foundations that support biomedical and behavioral research should make funds available specifically for the avenues of investigation listed above and for other related topics.

  1. Animal welfare scientists and researchers and scientists who use animal models should communicate with each other more frequently in order to compare objectives and progress and to identify opportunities for collaboration. Neutral groups and/or other established research and science policy entities can provide platforms and venues for such exchanges.


NRC (National Research Council). 2003a. Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


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