nonanimal or nonvertebrate alternatives. Funding for laboratory animal welfare research, however, is usually available only in small amounts from nongovernmental organizations such as the Animal Welfare Institute, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, and the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Given the impact of better animal welfare on science as well as the growing public interest in the treatment of laboratory animals, federal agencies and large foundations that support biomedical and behavioral research should make funds available specifically for the avenues of investigation listed above and for other related topics.

  1. Animal welfare scientists and researchers and scientists who use animal models should communicate with each other more frequently in order to compare objectives and progress and to identify opportunities for collaboration. Neutral groups and/or other established research and science policy entities can provide platforms and venues for such exchanges.

REFERENCES

AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association). 2007. 2007 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia.

Bayne, K. A. L., J. A. Mench, B. V. Beaver, and D. B. Morton. 2002. Laboratory Animal Behavior. In: Laboratory Animal Science, ACLAM series 2nd Ed. New York: Academic Press. 1240-1264 pp.

Bradshaw, W. S. and R. A. Casey. 2007. Anthropomorphism and anthropocentrism as influences in the quality of life of companion animals. Anim Welf 16 (suppl): in press.

Brown, M., L. Carbone, K. M. Conlee, M. S. Dawkins, I. J. Duncan, D. Fraser, G. Griffin, V.A. Hampshire, L. A. Lambert, J. A. Mench, D. Morton, J. Richmond, B. E. Rollin, A. N. Rowan, M. L. Stephens, and H. Würbel. 2006. Report of the Working Group on Animal Distress in the Laboratory. Lab Animal 35(8):26-30.

EEC (European Economic Commission). 1986. Council Directive 86/609/EEC on the Protection of Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes. Available at: ec.europa.eu/food/fs/aw/aw_legislation/scientific/86-609-eec_en.pdf. Accessed August 2007.

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Gingrich, J. A. 2006. Oxidative stress is the new stress. Nat Med 11(12):1281-1282.

Hawkins, P., L. M. Felton, P. L. Van Loo, M. Maconochie, D. J. Wells, N. Dennison, R. Hubrecht, and M. Jennings. 2006. Report of the 2005 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group Meeting. Lab Anim 35(9):10.

Hawkins, P., L. Playle, H. Golledge, M. Leach, R. Banzett, A. Coene, J. Cooper, P. Danneman, P. Flecknell, R. Kirkden, L. Niel, and M. Raj. 2006. Newcastle Consensus Meeting on Carbon Dioxide Euthanasia of Laboratory Animals. Available at: www.nc3rs.org.uk/downloaddoc.asp?id=416&page=292&skin=0. Accessed January 30, 2008.



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