. "Appendix: Tools to Monitor and Assess Health Status and Well-Being in Stress and Distress." Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2008.
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Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals
are introduced by gender, age, physiological state, genetics, and genetic modification of the animals.
The first three tables below contain behavioral categories and descriptions of physiologic activities in which rhesus macaques, common marmosets, and rabbits engage. In order to determine what kind of behavior it is that an animal exhibits, one needs to be knowledgeable in the ethology and husbandry of the species in question. For example, aggression may be a signal for fear or pain, but may also be observed in lactating mothers protecting their nest. Determining the variation of the behavior from normalcy is a matter of training, studying, and observation.
TABLE A-1 An ethogram for Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque)
Facial threat displays
Open mouth face ± bared teeth or vocalization
Stiff approach, attacking run
Slap, grab, biting, or wrestling
Facial submissive display
Bared teeth grin ± vocalization
Avoid, flee, leave, displaced
Groom present, lip smacking
Contact sit (within arms reach), embrace, touch
Grooming other animal
Genital present/inspection, mounting
Food search, eating, drinking
Locomotion, enrichment use, self-grooming
Lying, huddling, sitting, sleeping
Visually following other individuals
Reprinted from Augustsson, A. and J. Hau. 1999. A simple ethological monitoring system to assess social stress in group-housed laboratory rhesus macaques. J Med Primatol 28:84-90.