are introduced by gender, age, physiological state, genetics, and genetic modification of the animals.

The first three tables below contain behavioral categories and descriptions of physiologic activities in which rhesus macaques, common marmosets, and rabbits engage. In order to determine what kind of behavior it is that an animal exhibits, one needs to be knowledgeable in the ethology and husbandry of the species in question. For example, aggression may be a signal for fear or pain, but may also be observed in lactating mothers protecting their nest. Determining the variation of the behavior from normalcy is a matter of training, studying, and observation.

TABLE A-1 An ethogram for Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque)

Behavioral Categories

Recorded Behavior


Aggressive behaviors

Facial threat displays

Open mouth face ± bared teeth or vocalization

Aggressive approach

Stiff approach, attacking run

Physical aggression

Slap, grab, biting, or wrestling

Submissive behaviors

Facial submissive display

Bared teeth grin ± vocalization


Avoid, flee, leave, displaced

Active appeasement

Groom present, lip smacking

Affiliative behaviors

Affiliative contact

Contact sit (within arms reach), embrace, touch

Passive grooming

Being groomed

Active grooming

Grooming other animal

Sexual behaviors

Sexual contact

Genital present/inspection, mounting

Appetitive behaviors


Food search, eating, drinking

Other activities


Locomotion, enrichment use, self-grooming

Abnormal behaviors

Abnormal behaviors

Stereotypies, autoaggression



Lying, huddling, sitting, sleeping


Monitoring others

Visually following other individuals

Reprinted from Augustsson, A. and J. Hau. 1999. A simple ethological monitoring system to assess social stress in group-housed laboratory rhesus macaques. J Med Primatol 28:84-90.

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