TABLE A-2 An ethogram for Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset)

Behavior

Code

Definition

Agonism

Tufts-flick

TF

Rapid back-and-forth movement of ear tufts

Frown

FR

Lower eyebrows, furl brow, and turn down corners of mouth while staring

Cuff

CU

Swift, superficial blow or scratch performed aggressively

Chase

CH

Pursue partner, with one or both animals exhibiting aggression and/or submission (not play)

Fight

FI

Grapple aggressively with partner(s), involving biting, clawing, and wrestling

Attack

AT

Lunge at or pounce on partner aggressively; may or may not result in fight

Snap bite

SB

Direct a single short, sharp bite at partner

Submit

SU

Flatten ear tufts and/or facial grimace (partially open mouth with corners of mouth retracted, exposing lower and sometimes upper teeth) and/or slit eyes (eyelids half closed)

Continuous submit

CS

Continuous submit; start scoring after 5 sec

Retreat

RE

Starting from a stationary position, move at least one body length away from another animal within 1 sec of the other animal establishing proximity (within 10 cm)

Play

Play

PL

Two or more animals lunge, grapple, wrestle, or chase for at least 1 sec in absence of aggression or intense submission; play face may or may not be present

Solicit play

SP

Direct play face toward, pounce on, or initiate grapple with partner, in absence of ongoing play with partner

Play face

PF

Open mouth without retraction of the lips

Join play

JP

Join ongoing play bout between two or more partners

End play

EP

Discontinue all social play for ≥ 3 sec

Social play

SO

Social interactions involving non-aggressive physical contact with other individuals; high activity

Infant-associated behaviors

Climb on

ON

Climb onto any part of partner’s body so that all four limbs are on partner

Solicit climb on

SC

Position body directly above infant and/or pull infant onto body; may or may not result in infant climbing onto partner’s body

Climb off

OF

Voluntary climb off partner’s body after having all four limbs on partner

Push off/reject

PO

Prevent juvenile from climbing onto body, or rub or otherwise force juvenile off body

Nurse

NU

Have mouth on female’s nipple for ≥ 1 sec

End nursing

EN

Discontinue nursing posture



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement