• General

    1. Develop predictive and risk-assessment models of potential cumulative impacts of proposed wind-energy facilities, based on monitoring studies and hypothesis-based research.

Summary

More information is needed on the characteristics of bird and bat fatalities at wind facilities in all regions of the county, and in particular areas that are relatively unstudied such as the Mid-Atlantic Highlands, the arid southwest, and coastal areas. Turbine characteristics, turbine siting, and abundance appear to be important factors in determining the risk of raptor fatalities at wind-energy facilities. Compared to relatively high raptor fatalities at some older facilities in California, direct impacts of wind-energy development on passerines at the current level of development appear to be minimal. At current levels of development existing data suggest that new-generation turbines (e.g., fewer turbines mounted on monopoles with greater rotor-swept zones) may cause lower bird fatalities in agricultural and grassland areas than older smaller turbines have caused in California. Data on bird fatalities are absent for many existing wind-energy facilities, particularly in Texas and the southwestern United States. Additionally, new areas are being proposed for development where no previous data on bird and bat fatalities exist. It is important to assess impacts in existing and new areas to determine if trends are consistent with existing information. In particular, only two short-term post-construction studies have been conducted in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands and any new facilities should be used as learning opportunities.

Additional information also is needed to characterize bat fatalities in all regions of the country where wind-energy development has occurred or where it is expected. Most wind-turbine-related bat fatalities in the United States have been of migratory species. To date, no fatalities of federally listed bat species have been documented, although as wind-energy development increases geographically, some threatened and endangered species could be at risk. Among the studies that have been conducted, the highest bat fatality rates appear to occur episodically in late summer and early autumn during periods of relatively low wind speeds (< 6 m/sec), at times when wind-energy generation is low, especially following passing weather fronts. To date, few studies have evaluated fatalities during spring migration or during the summer maternity period. Moreover, among fatality surveys that have been conducted, few have consistently corrected results for observer bias and scavenger removal, protocols that are needed to provide reliable data on fatalities. While current evidence suggests that the highest fatality rates are of migratory tree-roosting species along ridge tops in



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