bines at the facility and elsewhere in the region. The data should cover the following types of information:

  • Leasing arrangements

  • Jobs directly created (including skill and pay levels, duration, hiring policies)

  • Local government revenue and costs

  • Economic mitigation and enhancement measures

More studies also are needed of public attitudes toward specific wind-energy facilities and how they affect economic behavior (e.g., property values, tourism, new residential development). To allow for cross-facility and longitudinal comparisons, the methods of data collection and analysis used in these studies should be replicable.

Electromagnetic Interference

With the exception of radar, the main EMI effects of wind-energy projects are well understood. Wind turbines have the potential to cause interference to television broadcasts, while the audio parts of TV broad-casts are less susceptible to interference. The data available are adequate to predict interference effects and areas and to minimize interference at the planning stage or propose suitable mitigation requirements.

Information Needs

Regarding radar, more research is needed to understand the conditions under which wind turbines can interfere with radar systems and to develop appropriate mitigation measures.

In addition, while EMI is not an issue in all countries (e.g., it is not an issue in Denmark), EMI issues should be given sufficient coverage in environmental impact statements and assessments to provide adequate evaluation of wind-energy project applications.


Well-established methods are available for assessing the positive and negative impacts of wind-energy projects on humans; these methods enable better-informed and more-enlightened decision making by regulators, developers, and the public. They include systematic methods for assessing aesthetic impacts, which often are among the most-vocalized concerns expressed about wind-energy projects.

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