Wind energy has a long history, having been used for sailing vessels at least since 3100 BC. Traditionally, windmills were used to lift water and grind grain as early as the 10th century AD. However, significant electricity generation from wind in the United States began only in the 1980s, in California; today, electricity is generated from wind in 36 states, including Alaska and Hawaii.

There has been a rapid evolution of wind-turbine design over the past 25 years. Thus, modern turbines are different in many ways from the turbines that were originally installed in California’s three large installations at Altamont Pass, Tehachapi, and San Gorgonio (Palm Springs). A typical modern generator consists of a pylon about 60 to 90 meters (m) high with a three-bladed rotor about 70 to 90 m in diameter mounted atop it. Larger blades and taller towers are becoming more common. Other support facilities usually include relatively small individual buildings and a substation.

This study is concerned with utility-scale clusters of generators often referred to as “wind farms,” not with small turbines used for individual agricultural farms or houses. Some of the installations contain hundreds of turbines; the wind installation at Altamont Pass in California consists of more than 5,000, and those at Tehachapi and Palm Springs contain at least 3,000 each, ranging from older machines as small as 100 kilowatts (kW) to more modern 1.5 MW turbines. The committee that produced this report focused only on installations onshore. There were no offshore wind-energy installations in the United States as of the beginning of 2007.


Statement of Task

The National Research Council was asked to establish an expert committee to carry out a scientific study of the environmental impacts of wind-energy projects, focusing on the Mid-Atlantic Highlands1 (MAH) as a case example. The study was to consider adverse and beneficial effects, including impacts on landscapes, viewsheds, wildlife, habitats, water resources, air pollution, greenhouse gases, materials-acquisition costs, and other impacts. Using information from wind-energy projects proposed or in place in the MAH and other regions as appropriate, the committee was charged to develop an analytical framework for evaluating those effects to inform siting decisions for wind-energy projects. The study also was to identify major areas of research and development needed to better understand the


The MAH refers to elevated regions of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.

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