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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary References CHAPTER 2 Bandini, L.G., D.A. Schoeller, and W.H. Dietz. 1990. Energy expenditure in obese and nonobese adolescents. Pediatr Res 27:198–203. Berkey, C.S., H.R. Rockett, A.E. Field, M.W. Gillman, and G.A. Colditz. 2004. Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obes Res 12(5):778–788. Blumberg, J.B. 1997. Public health implications of preventive nutrition. In The comprehensive guide for health professionals, edited by A. Bendich and R.J. Deckelbaum. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, Inc. Pp. 1–15. Deckelbaum, R.J., E.A. Fisher, M. Winston, S. Kumanyika, R.M. Lauer, F.X. Pi-Sunyer, S. St. Jeor, E.J. Schaefer, and I.B. Weinstein. 1999. Summary of a scientific conference on preventive nutrition: Pediatrics to geriatrics. Circulation 100(4):450–456. DGAC (Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee). 2005. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee report. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture. http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report (accessed August 23, 2007). DHHS/USDA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2005. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. 6th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. GPO No 001-000-04719-1. Dietz, W.H., L.G. Bandini, J.A. Morelli, K.F. Peers, and P.L. Ching. 1994. Effect of sedentary activities on resting metabolic rate. Am J Clin Nutr 59:556–559.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary Esrey, K.L., L. Joseph, and S.A. Grover. 1996. Relationship between dietary intake and coronary heart disease mortality: Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Follow-up Study. J Clin Epidemiol 49:211–216. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 1980. FDA Food Fortification Policy. 21 C.F.R. 104.20. Fogelholm, M., and K. Kukkonen-Harjula. 2000. Does physical activity prevent weight gain—a systematic review. Obes Reviews 1:95–111. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and flouride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001a. Dietary reference intakes: Applications in dietary assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001b. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin A, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenium, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. IOM. 2002. Evolution of evidence for selected nutrient and disease relationships.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2002/2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrates, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2003. Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2004. Dietary Reference Intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Edited by J.J Otten, J.P. Hellwig, and L.D. Meyers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Ludwig, D.S., K.E. Peterson, and S.L. Gortmaker. 2001. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: A prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357(9255):505–508. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk assessment in the federal government: Managing the process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary Phillips, S.M., L.G. Bandini, E.N. Naumova, H. Cyr, S. Colclough, W.H. Dietz, and A. Must. 2004. Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: Longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res 12(3):461–472. Rosenberg, I.H. 2005. Science-based micronutrient fortification: Which nutrients, how much, and how to know? Am J Clin Nutr 82(2):279–280. Striegel-Moore, R.H., D. Thompson, S.G. Affenito, D.L. Franko, E. Obarzanek, B.A. Barton, G.B. Schreiber, S.R. Daniels, M. Schmidt, and P.B. Crawford. 2006. Correlates of beverage intake in adolescent girls: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Pediatr 148(2):183–187. Subar, A.F., V. Kipnis, R.P. Troiano, D. Midthune, D.A. Schoeller, S. Bingham, C.O. Sharbaugh, J. Trabulsi, S. Runswick, R. Ballard-Barbash, J. Sunshine, and A. Schatzkin. 2003. Using intake biomarkers to evaluate the extent of dietary misreporting in a large sample of adults: The OPEN study. Am J Epidemiol 158(1):1–13. Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2005. Guide to community preventive services website. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. www.thecommunityguide.org/nutrition/ (accessed on: July 10, 2007). Van Duyn, M.A., and E. Pivonka. 2000. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: Selected literature. J Am Diet Assoc 100(12):1511–1521. Welsh, J.A., M.E. Cogswell, S. Rogers, H. Rockett, Z. Mei, and L.M. Grummer-Strawn. 2005. Overweight among low-income preschool children associated with the consumption of sweet drinks: Missouri, 1999–2002. Pediatrics 115(2):e223–e229. WHO (World Health Organization). 2003. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Geneva, Switzerland, 28 January–1 February 2002. CHAPTER 3 Bailar, J.C. 3rd, and A.J. Bailer. 1999. Risk assessment—the mother of all uncertainties. Disciplinary perspectives on uncertainty in risk assessment. Ann N Y Acad Sci 895:273–285. Ballew, C., D. Galuska, and C. Gillespie. 2001. High serum retinylesters are not associated with reduced bone mineral density in the Third Na-
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary tional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. J Bone 98 NUTRITIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT Miner Res 16:2306–2312. Bernstein, A.L., and C.S. Lobitz. 1988. A clinical and electrophysiologic study of the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathies with pyridoxine. In Clinical and physiological applications of vitamin B6: Current topics in nutrition and disease, edited by J.E. Leklem, and R.D. Reynolds. New York: Alan R. Liss. Pp. 415–423. Dalton, K., and M.J.T. Dalton. 1987. Characteristics of pyridoxine overdose neuropathy syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 76:8–11. Davis, C.D., D.B. Milne, and F.H. Nielsen. 2000. Changes in dietary zinc and copper affect zinc-status indicators of postmenopausal women, notably extracellular superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 71:781–788. EC (European Commission). 2000. Opinion of the scientific committee on food on the tolerable upper intake levels of beta carotene. http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/index_en.html (accessed July 10, 2007). EVM (Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals). 2003. Safe upper levels for vitamins and minerals. London, UK: Food Standards Agency Publications. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/vitmin203.pdf (accessed January 15, 2007). FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization), The International Programme on Chemical Safety. 2005. A model for establishing upper levels of intake for nutrients and related substances: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Technical Workshop on Nutrient Risk Assessment. http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/nra/en/index.html (accessed July 10, 2007). Feskanich, D., V. Singh, W.C. Willett, and G.A. Colditz. 2002. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women. JAMA 287(1):47–54. Freudenheim, J.L., N.E. Johnson, and E.L. Smith. 1986. Relationships between usual nutrient intake and bone-mineral content of women 35–65 years of age: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 44:863–876. HoutKooper, L.B., C. Ritenbaugh, M. Aickin, T.G. Lohman, S.B. Going, J.L. Weber, K.A. Greaves, T.W. Boyden, R.W. Pamenter, and M.C. Hall. 1995. Nutrients, body composition and exercise are related to change in bone mineral density in premenopausal women. J Nutr 125:1229–1237.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1998a. Dietary Reference Intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM 1998b. A risk assessment model for establishing upper intake levels for nutrients. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000a. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2000b. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in dietary assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2006a. Dietary Reference Intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements, edited by J.J. Otten, J.P. Hellwig, and L.D. Meyers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2006b. WIC food packages: Time for a change. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Maggio, D., M. Barabani, M. Pierandrei, M.C. Polidori, M. Catani, P. Mecocci, U. Senin, R. Pacifici, and A. Cherubini. 2003. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: Results of a cross-sectional study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(4):1523–1527. Melhus, H., K. Michaelsson, A. Kindmark, R. Bergstrom, L. Holmberg, H. Mallmin, A. Wolk, and S. Ljunghall. 1998. Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture. Ann Int Med 129:770–778. Milne, D.B., C.D. Davis, and F.H. Nielsen. 2001. Low dietary zinc alters indices of copper function and status in postmenopausal women. Nutrition 17(9):701–708. Opotansky, A.R., and J.P. Bilezikian. 2004. Serum vitamin A concentration and the risk of hip fracture among women 50 to 74 years old in the United States: A prospective analysis of the NHANES I Follow-up Study. Am J Med 117:169–174. Penniston, K.L., N. Weng, N. Binkley, and S.A. Tanumihardjo. 2006. Serum retinyl esters are not elevated in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis whose preformed vitamin A intakes are high. Am J Clin Nutr 84:1350–1356.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary Phillips, W.E., J.H. Mills, S.M. Charbonneau, L. Tryphonas, G.V. Hatina, Z. Zawidzka, F.R. Bryce, and I.C. Munro. 1978. Subacute toxicity of pyridoxine hydrochloride in the beagle dog. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 44:323–333. Promislow, J.H.E., D. Goodman-Gruen, D.J. Slymen, and E. Barrett-Connor. 2002. Retinol intake and bone mineral density in the elderly: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Bone Miner Res 17(8):1349–1358. Rejnmark, L., P. Vestergaard, P. Charles, A.P. Hermann, C. Brot, P. Eiken, and L. Mosekilde. 2004. No effect of vitamin A intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 15(11):872–880. Rothman, K.J., L.L. Moore, M.R. Singer, U.D.T. Nguygen, S. Mannino, and B. Milunsky. 1995. Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N Engl J Med 333:1369–1373. SCF (Scientific Committee on Food). 2000. Opinion of the scientific committee on food on the tolerable upper intake level of vitamin B6 (SCF/CS/NUT/UPPLEV/16 Final). http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out80c_en.pdf (accessed January 5, 2007). SCF. 2002. Opinion of the scientific committee on food on the tolerable upper intake level of preformed vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters) (SCF/CS/NUT/UPPLEV/24 Final). http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out80g_en.pdf (accessed January 5, 2007). SCF. 2003. Opinion of the scientific committee on food on the tolerable upper intake level of zinc (SCF/CS/NUT/UPPLEV/62Final). http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out177_en.pdf (accessed January 5, 2007). Yadrick, M.K., M.A. Kenney, and E.A. Winterfeldt. 1989. Iron, copper, and zinc status: Response to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in adult females. Am J Clin Nutr 49:145–150. CHAPTER 4 Byers, T., J. Marshall, E. Anthony, R. Fiedler, and M. Zielezny. 1987. The reliability of dietary history from the distant past. Am J Epidemiol 125:999–1011. De Longeril, M., P. Salen, J.L. Martin, I. Monjaud, J. Delaye, and N. Mamelle. Mediteranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: Final report of the Lyon Diet and Heart Study. Circulation 99:779–785.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary Delgado-Rodrigous, M., and J. Llorca. 2004. Bias. J Epidemiol Community Health 58:635–641. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2006a. Food and drugs: Food labeling. Federal Register 21 CFR 101.a14(a)(2). FDA. 2006b. Food and drugs: Food Labeling. Federal Register 21 CFR 101.14(a)(5). FDA/CFSAN (U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition). 2003a. Release of task force report; guidance for industry and FDA: Interim evidence-based ranking system for scientific data; interim procedures for health claims on the labeling of conventional human food and human dietary supplements; availability. Federal Register/68(133). July 11. FDA/CFSAN. 2003b. Guidance for industry and FDA: Interim evidence-based ranking system for scientific data. www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/hclmgui4.html (accessed July 10, 2007). Mares-Perlman, J.A., W.E. Brady, R. Klein, G.M. VandenLangenberg, B.E. Klein, and M. Palta. 1995. Dietary fat and age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 113(6):743–748. Moeller, S.M., N. Parekj, L. Tinker, C. Ritenbaugh, B. Blodi, R.B. Wallace, J.A. Mares, and CAREDS Research Study Group. 2006. Associations between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and lutein and zeanthin in the Carotenoids in Age-related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS): Ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Arch Opthalmol 124:1151–1162. Ogren, M., B. Hedblad, and L. Janzon. 1996. Biased risk factor assessment in prospective studies of peripheral arterial disease due to change in exposure and selective mortality of high-risk individuals. J Cardiovasc Risk 3(6):523–528. Sachs, F.M., L.P. Svetkey, W.M. Vollmer, L.J. Appel, G.A. Bray, D. Harsha, E. Obarzanek, P.A. Conlin, E.R. Miller, D.G. Simons-Morton, N. Karanja, and P.-H. Lin. 2001. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet. N Engl J Med 344:3–10. Van Leeuwen, R.S. Boekhoorn, J.R. Vingerling, J.C. Witteman, C.C. Klaver, A. Hofman, and P.T. de Jong. 2005. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 294:2101–2107. Whitaker v. Thompson, 2004. 353F.2d 947.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary CHAPTER 5 Ahn, J., M.D. Gammon, R.M. Santella, M.M. Gaudet, J.A. Britton, S.L. Teitelbaum, M.B. Terry, A.I. Neugut, P.D. Josephy, and C.B. Ambrosone. 2004. Myeloperoxidase genotype, fruit and vegetable consumption, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 64(20):7634–7639. Decroos, K., S. Vanhemmens, S. Cattoir, N. Boon, and W. Verstraete. 2005. Isolation and characterisation of an equol-producing mixed microbial culture from a human faecal sample and its activity under gastrointestinal conditions. Arch Microbio 183(1):45–55. Decroos, K., E. Eeckhaut, S. Possemiers, and W. Verstraete. 2006. Administration of equol-producing bacteria alters the equol production status in the Simulator of the Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). J Nutr 136:946–952. Dodd, K.W., P.M. Guenther, L.S. Freedman, A.F. Subar, V. Kipnis, D. Midthune, J.A. Tooze, and S.M. Krebs-Smith. 2006. Statistical methods for estimating usual intake of nutrients and foods: A review of the theory. J Am Diet Assoc 106:1640–1650. Duffield-Lillico, A.J., M.E. Reid, B.W. Turnbull, G.F. Combs Jr., E.H. Slate, L.A. Fischbach, J.R. Marshall, and L.C. Clark. 2002. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: A summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11(7):630–639. Issa, J.P., N. Ahuja, M. Toyota, M.P. Bronner, and T.A. Brentnall. 2001. Accelerated age-related CpG island methylation in ulcerative colitis. Cancer Res 61(9):3573–3577. Limburg, P.J., W. Wei, D.J. Ahnen, Y. Qiao, E.T. Hawk, G. Wang, C.A. Giffen, G. Wang, M.J. Roth, N. Lu, E.L. Korn, Y. Ma, K.L. Caldwell, Z. Dong, P.R. Taylor, and S.M. Dawsey. 2005. Randomized, placebo-controlled, esophageal squamous cell cancer chemoprevention trial of selenomethionine and celecoxib. Gastroenterol 129:863–873. NRC (National Research Council). 1986. Nutrient adequacy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Nusser, S.M., A.L. Carriquiry, K.W. Dodd, and W.A. Fuller. 1996. A semiparametric transformation approach to estimating usual daily intake distributions. J Am Stat Assoc 91:1440–1449.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary Ordovas, J.M., D. Corella, S. Demissie, L.A. Cupples, P. Couture, O. Coltell, P.W. Wilson, E.J. Schaefer, and K.L. Tucker. 2002. Dietary fat intake determines the effect of a common polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene promoter on high-density lipoprotein metabolism: Evidence of a strong dose effect in this gene-nutrient interaction in the Framingham Study. Circulation 106(18):2315–2321. Rapuri, P.B., J.C. Gallagher, H.K. Kinyamu, and K.L. Ryschon. 2001. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 74(5):694–700. Setchell, K.D., and S.J. Cole. 2006. Method of defining equol-producer status and its frequency among vegetarians. J Nutr 136:2188–2193. Subar, A.F., K.W. Dodd, P.M. Guenther, V. Kipnis, D. Midthune, M. McDowell, J.A. Tooze, L.S. Freedman, and S.M. Krebs-Smith. 2006. The Food Propensity Questionnaire: concept, development, and validation for use as a covariate in a model to estimate usual food intake. J Am Diet Assoc 106:1556–1563. Swami, S., A.V. Krishnan, D.M. Peehl, and D. Feldman. 2005. Genistein potentiates the growth inhibitory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in DU145 human prostate cancer cells: Role of the direct inhibition of CYP24 enzyme activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 241(1–2):49–61. Tooze, J.A., D. Midthune, K.W. Dodd, L.S. Freedman, S.M. Krebs-Smith, A.F. Subar, P.M. Guenther, R.J. Carroll, and V. Kipnis. 2006. A new statistical method for estimating the usual intake of episodically consumed foods with application to their distribution. J Am Diet Assoc 106:1575–1587. Wong, H.L., A. Seow, K. Arakawa, H.P. Lee, M.C. Yu, and S.A. Ingles. 2003. Vitamin D receptor start codon polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: Effect modification by dietary calcium and fat in Singapore Chinese. Carcinogenesis 24(6):1091–1095. Yang, W.C., J. Mathew, A. Velcich, W. Edelmann, R. Kucherlapati, M. Lipkin, K. Yang, and L.H. Augenlicht. 2001. Targeted inactivation of the p21(WAF1/cip1) gene enhances Apc-initiated tumor formation and the tumor-promoting activity of a Western-style high-risk diet by altering cell maturation in the intestinal mucosal. Cancer Res 61(2): 565–569.
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Nutritional Risk Assessment: Perspectives, Methods, and Data Challenges - Workshop Summary CHAPTER 6 IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2003. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in dietary planning. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2007. Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
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