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D Biographic Sketches of Workshop Planning Committee, Forum Members, Invited Speakers, and Staff WORKSHOP PLANNING COMMITTEE Alan I. Leshner, Ph.D. (Workshop Chair, Neuroscience Forum, Chair), is chief executive officer (CEO) of the American Association for the Ad- vancement of Science (AAAS) and executive publisher of its journal, Science. Previously Dr. Leshner had been director of the National Insti- tute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and deputy director and acting director of the National Institute of Men- tal Health (NIMH). Before that, he held a variety of senior positions at the National Science Foundation (NSF). Dr. Leshner began his career at Bucknell University, where he was professor of psychology. Dr. Leshner is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies, and a fellow of AAAS, the National Academy of Public Administration, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was appointed by the U.S. President to the National Science Board, and is a member of the Advisory Committee to the Director of NIH. He re- ceived an A.B. in psychology from Franklin and Marshall College and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physiological psychology from Rutgers University. Dr. Leshner also holds honorary Doctor of Science degrees from Frank- lin and Marshall College and Pavlov Medical University in St. Peters- burg, Russia. Duane Alexander, M.D., was named director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in 1986, after serving as the Institute’s acting director. Much of his career has been with NICHD. After receiving his undergraduate degree from Pennsyl- vania State University, Dr. Alexander earned his M.D. from Johns 311

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312 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT Hopkins University School of Medicine. Following his internship and residency at the Department of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins Hospital, he joined NICHD in 1968 as a clinical associate in the Children’s Diag- nostic and Study Branch. Following his tenure with the branch, Dr. Alexander returned to Johns Hopkins as a fellow in pediatrics (developmental disabilities) at the John F. Kennedy Institute for Habilita- tion of the Mentally and Physically Handicapped Child. He returned to NICHD in 1971, when he became assistant to the scientific director and directed the NICHD National Amniocentesis Study. He is a diplo- mate of the American Board of Pediatrics and a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Pediatric Society, and the Society for Develop-mental Pediatrics. For more than a decade, he also served as the U.S. observer on the Steering Committee on Bioethics for the Coun- cil of Europe. As an officer in the Public Health Service (PHS), Dr. Alexander has received numerous PHS awards, including a Commenda- tion Medal in 1970, a Meritorious Service Medal, and a Special Recogni- tion Award in 1985. He also received the Surgeon General’s Exemplary Service Medal in 1990, and the Surgeon General’s Medallion in 1993 and 2002. In addition, Dr. Alexander is the author of numerous articles and book chapters, most of which relate to his research in developmental disabilities. Mark Blaxill is the father of a daughter diagnosed with autism and vice president of SafeMinds. He spent most of his professional career at the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), where he was a senior vice president. While at BCG he was the leader of the firm’s Strategy Practice and led firm initiatives in the area of globalization, open source software, intel- lectual property, and network analysis. He has wide industry experience, including client assignments in information services, pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics, and retailing. He has worked on a wide range of business problems for CEOs and heads of strategy of Fortune 100 and Dow Jones Index companies. He is writing a book on the subject of intel- lectual property strategies for business and launching a new business venture. He is a named inventor on BCG’s first patent application. He holds an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School and a bachelor’s degree in international affairs from Princeton University. He is also the author of several publications on autism, including “What’s Going On? The Ques- tion of Time Trends in Autism” (Public Health Reports, 2004); “Re- duced Mercury Levels in First Baby Haircuts of Autistic Children” (International Journal of Toxicology, 2003); and “Thimerosal and Au-

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313 APPENDIX D tism? A Plausible Hypothesis That Should Not Be Dismissed” (Medical Hypotheses, 2004). He has been a frequent speaker on autism-related issues, including conference presentations for Neurotoxicology (2006), Defeat Autism Now! (2001, 2006), Autism One (2004, 2005, and 2006), National Autism Association (2005), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) (2005), and the IOM Immunization Safety Re- view (2001). Laura Bono is a board member, cofounder, and chair emeritus of the National Autism Association (NAA). Along with NIEHS and SafeMinds, she helped to plan and execute the Environmental Factors in Neurode- velopmental Disorders Symposium. She graduated from the University of South Carolina with a B.S. in journalism with a minor in marketing. She currently serves as director of marketing for the Parent Institute and has more than 25 years of business experience in marketing. The youngest of her three children has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Sophia Colamarino, Ph.D., is vice president of research at Autism Speaks. Among her duties, Dr. Colamarino manages and oversees Au- tism Speaks’ Biology Portfolio and new High Risk/High Impact pro- gram. After 16 years of research experience, she joined Cure Autism Now (CAN) in November 2004 as Science Director to oversee the sci- ence program in association with the CAN Scientific Review Council. She graduated with dual degrees in biological sciences and psychology from Stanford University. She received her Ph.D. in neurosciences from University of California–San Francisco (UCSF), where she studied brain development with distinguished neuroscientist Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Ph.D. After receiving her Ph.D., she conducted research on the genetic disorder Kallmann Syndrome at the Telethon Institute for Genetics and Medicine in Milan, Italy, led by human geneticist Andrea Ballabio, M.D. She then returned to the United States to work at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA, studying adult neural stem cells and brain regeneration in the laboratory of stem cell pioneer Fred H. Gage, Ph.D. Dr. Colamarino’s research career has included publications in journals such as Cell and Nature. During her tenure at CAN, Dr. Colamarino oversaw a large growth in the science program, expanding the CAN research portfolio from 11 grants in 2004 to 39 in 2006, and developed several important autism initiatives, including the Neuropathology Workgroup, a collabo- rative effort to understand the cellular and molecular basis of brain

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314 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT enlargement in autism, the first Environmental Innovator Award, and research summit meetings on immunology and neuroimaging. Eric Fombonne, M.D., is the head of the Division of Child Psychiatry at McGill and director of the Department of Psychiatry at the Montreal Children’s Hospital, where he has expanded autism services. He worked at INSERM in France and at the London Institute of Psychiatry in Eng- land, and he is now holder of a Canada Research Chair. He has been in- volved in numerous epidemiological studies of autism and is considered to be a leading authority on this topic, and also on the putative links be- tween autism and immunization. He has also been involved in the devel- opment of assessment tools for clinical and research purposes, in family and genetic studies of autism, and in outcome studies. He has a long track record of scientific/research leadership—including serving as a consultant for the National Academies, the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Academy of Pediatrics, the MRC (United Kingdom), and the M.I.N.D. Institute (University of California– Davis)—on research matters related to autism. He has been associate editor of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders since 1994 and is on the editorial board of several other scientific journals. He is on the board of several family associations, with which he has worked closely over the years. Steve Hyman, M.D., is provost of Harvard University and professor of neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. From 1996 to 2001, he served as director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Earlier, Dr. Hyman was professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, di- rector of psychiatry research at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the first faculty director of Harvard University’s Mind, Brain, and Behavior Initiative. In the laboratory he studied the regulation of gene expression by neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, and by drugs that influence dopamine systems. This research was aimed at understanding addiction and the action of therapeutic psychotropic drugs. Dr. Hyman is a member of the IOM, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a fellow of the American College of Neuropsychopharma- cology. He is editor-in-chief of the Annual Review of Neuroscience. He has received awards for public service from the U.S. government and from patient advocacy groups such as the National Alliance for the Men- tally Ill and the National Mental Health Association. Dr. Hyman received his B.A. from Yale College and an M.A. from the University of Cam-

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315 APPENDIX D bridge, which he attended as a Mellon fellow studying the history and philosophy of science. He earned his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. Judy Illes, Ph.D., is professor of neurology and Canada Research Chair in Neuroethics, National Core for Neuroethics at the University of Brit- ish Columbia. Dr. Illes received her doctorate in hearing and speech sci- ences from Stanford University in 1987, with a specialization in experimental neuropsychology. Dr. Illes returned to Stanford University in 1991 to help build the research enterprise in imaging sciences in the Department of Radiology. She also cofounded the Stanford Brain Re- search Center (now the Neuroscience Institute at Stanford), and served as its first executive director between 1998 and 2001. Today, Dr. Illes di- rects a strong research team devoted to neuroethics, and issues specifi- cally at the intersection of medical imaging and biomedical ethics. Dr. Illes has written numerous books and edited volumes and articles. She is the author of The Strategic Grant Seeker: Conceptualizing Fundable Re- search in the Brain and Behavioral Sciences (1999, LEA Publishers, NJ), special guest editor of “Emerging Ethical Challenges in MR Imag- ing,” Topics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (2002), and “Ethical Chal- lenges in Advanced Neuroimaging,” Brain and Cognition (2002). Her latest book, Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice and Policy, was published by Oxford University Press in January 2006. Dr. Illes is co-chair of the Committee on Women in Neuroscience for the Society for Neuroscience; a member of the Internal Advisory Board for the Institute of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Addiction of the Ca- nadian Institutes of Health Research; and a member of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives. Thomas R. Insel, M.D., is director of the National Institute of Mental Health. He graduated from Boston University, where he received a B.A. from the College of Liberal Arts and an M.D. He did his internship at Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield, MA, and his residency at the Lang- ley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute at UCSF. Dr. Insel joined NIMH in 1979, where he served in various scientific research positions until 1994, when he went to Emory University as professor, Department of Psychia- try, Emory University School of Medicine, and director of the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. As director of Yerkes, Dr. Insel built one of the nation’s leading HIV vaccine research programs. He also served as the founding director of the Center for Behavioral Neurosci-

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316 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT ence, a Science and Technology Center funded by NSF to develop an interdisciplinary consortium for research and education at eight Atlanta colleges and universities. Dr. Insel’s scientific interests have ranged from clinical studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder to explorations of the molecular basis of social behaviors in rodents and nonhuman primates. His research on oxytocin and affiliative behaviors helped to launch the field of social neuroscience. He oversees NIMH’s $1.4 billion research budget, which provides support to investigators at universities in the ar- eas of basic science; clinical research, including large-scale trials of new treatments; and studies on the organization and delivery of mental health services. David A. Schwartz, M.D., is the director of the National Institute of En- vironmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Toxicology Pro- gram at NIH. Prior to this appointment, he served on the faculty at the University of Iowa (1988–2000) and Duke University (2000–2005). At Duke University, Dr. Schwartz served as the director of the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine and vice chair for re- search in the Department of Medicine. In this capacity, Dr. Schwartz es- tablished three NIH Centers: a center focusing on Environmental Genomics, a Program Project in Environmental Asthma, and an Envi- ronmental Health Sciences Research Center. Dr. Schwartz has focused his research on the genetic and biological determinants of environmental and occupational lung disease. These research efforts have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and biology of asbestos-induced lung disease, interstitial lung disease, environmental airway disease, and in- nate immunity. This research has identified endotoxin or lipopolysaccha- ride as an important cause of airway disease among those exposed to organic dusts, and determined that a specific mutation in the Toll-4 gene is associated with a diminished airway response to inhaled LPS in hu- mans. Recent work is focusing on the genes that regulate the innate im- mune response in humans, genes involved in the fibroproliferative response in the lung, and the genetic regulation of environmental asthma. Dr. Schwartz has served on numerous study sections and editorial boards, is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians, and was awarded the Scien- tific Accomplishment Award from the American Thoracic Society in 2003.

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317 APPENDIX D Alison Tepper Singer is executive vice president, awareness and com- munications, for Autism Speaks. Ms. Singer has been with the founda- tion since its launch in March 2005 and is a staff-liaison to the board of directors, in addition to overseeing the strategic communications and development of the growing organization. She served as interim CEO of the organization from March through July 2005. Prior to joining Autism Speaks, Ms. Singer spent 14 years at CNBC and NBC in a variety of po- sitions. From 1994 to 1999, she served as vice president of programming in NBC’s Cable and Business Development division. Most recently at CNBC, in her role as special projects producer, Ms. Singer produced the award-winning series “Autism: Paying the Price.” She has a B.A. in eco- nomics from Yale University and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School. Alison has a daughter and an older brother with autism. Susan Swedo, M.D., received her B.A. from Augustana College and her M.D. from Southern Illinois University. Shortly after completing a resi- dency in pediatrics at Northwestern University, Dr. Swedo was named chief of the Division of Adolescent Medicine at the university. The fol- lowing year, she moved to Washington, DC, and became a senior staff fellow in the Child Psychiatry Branch, NIMH. Dr. Swedo was granted tenure in 1992, became head of the Section on Behavioral Pediatrics in 1994, and chief of the Pediatrics and Developmental Neuropsychiatry Branch in 1998. She also served as the acting scientific director for NIMH from 1995 through 1998. Dr. Swedo recently received the Joel Elkes International Research Award from the American College of Neu- ropsychopharmacology. Her laboratory studies include childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders, including Tourette syndrome and Sydenham chorea. Christian G. Zimmerman, M.D., FACS, M.B.A., is chair and founder of the Idaho Neurological Institute (INI), adjunct professor of psychol- ogy at Boise State University, past CEO of Neuroscience Associates, and former board member for the Idaho State Board of Health and Welfare. Dr. Zimmerman established the INI research facility to focus on nervous system injury, repair, and neuroplasticity; leads its various interdiscipli- nary research teams; and is coprofessor for biology and cognitive neuro- science research students trained at the facility. Research projects include a 20-year longitudinal study of traumatic brain injury; investigations of spinal injury, stroke, aneurysms, arterial thrombolytic therapy interven- tion, neuropathology, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, sleep disor-

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318 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT ders, deep-brain stimulation, and movement disorders; and five Tele- medicine and Advanced Technologies Research Center (TATRC) grants. In his role as INI chair, he has facilitated numerous symposia and work- shops to provide educational opportunities for medical professionals and the public. Additionally, he chairs prevention programs for Idaho’s youth such as Think First. Dr. Zimmerman is a diplomate of the American Board of Neurological Surgery and Pain Management and a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and Physician Executives. He received his M.B.A. from Auburn University, and his M.D. from the University of Maryland. FORUM MEMBERS Alan I. Leshner, Ph.D. (Chair), biography in Workshop Planning Committee. Huda Akil, Ph.D., is the Gardner Quarton Distinguished University Pro- fessor of Neuroscience and Psychiatry at the University of Michigan, and the codirector of the Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute. Dr. Akil has made seminal contributions to the understanding of the neu- robiology of emotions, including pain, anxiety, depression, and substance abuse. Early on, she focused on the role of the endorphins and their re- ceptors in pain and stress responsiveness. Dr. Akil’s scientific contribu- tions have been recognized with numerous honors and awards. These include the Pacesetter Award from NIDA in 1993, and with Dr. Stanley Watson, the Pasarow Award for Neuroscience Research in 1994. In 1998, she received the Sachar Award from Columbia University and the Bristol Myers Squibb Unrestricted Research Funds Award. Dr. Akil is past president of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (1998) and past president of the Society for Neuroscience (2004), the largest neuroscience organization in the world. She was elected as a fel- low of AAAS in 2000. In 1994, she was elected to be a member of the IOM and is currently a member of its Council. In 2004, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Akil received her Ph.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles. Marc Barlow joined the strategic marketing group in GE Healthcare as leader of the neuroscience area in 2005. In this role he is responsible for the development and delivery of disease area strategies for CNS. Before

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319 APPENDIX D joining GE Mr. Barlow was the marketing director of Sanofi-Aventis in the United Kingdom. Prior to this he held a number of senior sales and marketing positions within the pharmaceutical industry, both domesti- cally in the United Kingdom and internationally based out of the United States and Switzerland. A large amount of Mr. Barlow’s experience has been in the neuroscience area, in particular in epilepsy, Alzheimer’s dis- ease, and stroke. Mr. Barlow graduated from the University of Wolver- hampton with a focus in biological sciences and the Chartered Institute of Marketing with a diploma in marketing studies. Dennis W. Choi, M.D., Ph.D., graduated from Harvard College and re- ceived an M.D. and a Ph.D. (the latter in pharmacology) from Harvard University and the Harvard–Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Program in Health Sciences and Technology. After completing residency and fellowship training in neurology at Harvard, he joined the faculty at Stanford University and began research into the mechanisms underlying pathological neuronal death. In 1991 he joined Washington University Medical School as head of the Neurology Department; there he also established the Center for the Study of Nervous System Injury, and directed the McDonnell Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobi- ology. From 2001 until 2006, he was executive vice president for neuro- science at Merck Research Labs. Dr. Choi is currently executive director of the Comprehensive Neurosciences Initiative at Emory University. He is a fellow of AAAS, and a member of the IOM, the Executive Commit- tee of the Dana Alliance for Brain Research Initiative, and the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. He has served as president of the Society for Neuroscience, vice president of the American Neurological Association, and chair of the U.S./Canada Regional Committee of the International Brain Research Organization. He has also served on the National Acad- emy of Sciences’ Board on Life Sciences, and Councils for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the Society for Neurosci- ence, the Winter Conference for Brain Research, the International Soci- ety for Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, and the Neurotrauma Society. He has been a member of advisory boards for the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation, the Hereditary Disease Foundation, the Harvard–MIT Program in Health Sciences and Technology, the Queen’s Neuroscience Institute in Honolulu, and the U.S. Food and Drug Ad- ministration (FDA), as well as for several university-based research con- sortia, biotechnology companies, and pharmaceutical companies.

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320 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT Timothy Coetzee, Ph.D., is the National Multiple Sclerosis Society’s vice president for discovery partnerships. In this capacity, Dr. Coetzee is responsible for the Society’s strategic funding of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies as well as partnerships with the financial and business communities. Dr. Coetzee received his Ph.D. in molecular biol- ogy from Albany Medical College and has been involved with multiple sclerosis (MS) research since then. He was a research fellow in the labo- ratory of society grantee Dr. Brian Popko at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, and was the recipient of one of the society’s Ad- vanced Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards. After completing his training with Dr. Popko, Dr. Coetzee joined the faculty of the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, where he conducted research that applied new technologies to understand how myelin is formed in the nervous system. He is the author of a num- ber of research publications on the structure and function of myelin. Dr. Coetzee joined the society Home Office staff in fall 2000. David H. Cohen, Ph.D., is a professor of psychiatry and biological sci- ences at Columbia University, where served as vice president and dean of the faculty of Arts and Sciences from 1995 to 2003. Prior to joining Columbia, he served as vice president for research and dean of the graduate school and subsequently as provost at Northwestern University. He has held professorships in physiology and/or neuroscience at North- western, State University of New York (SUNY)–Stony Brook, Univer- sity of Virginia School of Medicine, and Case Western University School of Medicine. Dr. Cohen has held various elected offices in na- tional and international organizations, including president of the Society for Neuroscience and chair of the Association of American Medical Col- leges. He has served on various boards, including Argonne National Laboratory, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Zenith Electron- ics, and Columbia University Press. He has also served on numerous ad- visory committees for various organizations, including NIH, NSF, Department of Defense, and National Academies. Dr. Cohen received his B.A. from Harvard University and Ph.D. from the University of California–Berkeley, and was an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at University of California–Los Angeles (UCLA). Richard Frank, M.D., Ph.D., is the Vice President of Medical and Clinical Strategy for GE Healthcare. He has two decades of experience designing and implementing clinical trials in the pharmaceutical indus-

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321 APPENDIX D try, and built the Experimental Medicine Department at Pharmacia be- fore joining GE Healthcare in 2005. He is a past president and founding director of the Society of Non-invasive Imaging in Drug Development and a Fellow of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine, Royal College of Physicians. He serves on the scientific review board for the Institute for the Study of Aging and is a member of the editorial board of Molecu- lar Imaging and Biology. Dr. Frank earned M.D. and Ph.D. (pharmacol- ogy) degrees concurrently and joined the pharmaceutical industry upon completion of his clinical training in 1985. Richard Hodes, M.D., is the director of the National Institute of Aging at NIH. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine. In 1995 Dr. Hodes was elected as a member of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives; in 1997 he was elected as a fellow of AAAS; and in 1999 he was elected to membership in the IOM. He also maintains an active involvement in research at NIH through his direction of the Im- mune Regulation Section, a laboratory devoted to studying regulation of the immune system, focused on cellular and molecular events that acti- vate the immune response. In the past Dr. Hodes acted as a clinical in- vestigator at the National Cancer Institute, then as the deputy chief and acting chief of the Cancer Institute’s Immunology Branch. Since 1982 he has served as program coordinator for the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Can- cer Research Program, and since 1992 on the scientific advisory board of the Cancer Research Institute. Dr. Hodes received his M.D. from Har- vard Medical School. He completed a research fellowship at the Karolin- ska Institute in Stockholm and clinical training in internal medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Steve Hyman, M.D., biography in Workshop Planning Committee. Judy Illes, Ph.D., biography in Workshop Planning Committee. Thomas R. Insel, M.D., biography in Workshop Planning Committee. Story C. Landis, Ph.D., has been director of the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) since 2003. Dr. Landis oversees an annual budget of $1.5 billion and a staff of more than 900 scientists, physician-scientists, and administrators. The institute supports research by investigators in public and private institutions across the country, as well as by scientists working in its intramural laboratories

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332 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT S. Jill James, Ph.D., is a research biochemist with more than 25 years of experience studying metabolic biomarkers of disease susceptibility. She received her B.S. in biology from Mills College in Oakland, CA, and her Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from UCLA. She is a professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sci- ences and director of the Autism Metabolic Genomics Laboratory at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital Research Institute. Before transferring to the University, she was a senior research scientist at the FDA National Center for Toxicological Research, where she directed a laboratory fo- cused on DNA methylation and cancer susceptibility. Her research career has been focused on defining gene–environment interactions that in- crease susceptibility to cancer, Down syndrome, and most recently, au- tism. She has published more than 120 peer-reviewed papers and recently received the American Society for Nutritional Sciences award for innovative research in the understanding of human nutrition. Philip J. Landrigan, M.D., is a pediatrician, epidemiologist, and inter- nationally recognized leader in public health and preventive medicine. He has been a member of the faculty of Mount Sinai School of Medicine since 1985 and chair of the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine since 1990. Dr. Landrigan graduated from Harvard Medical School. In 1977, he received a Diploma of Industrial Health from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He completed a resi- dency in pediatrics at Boston Children’s Hospital. He then served for 15 years as an epidemic intelligence service officer and medical epidemi- ologist at CDC and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In 1987, Dr. Landrigan was elected as a member of the IOM. He is editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Industrial Medicine and previously was editor of Environmental Research. He has chaired com- mittees at the National Academy of Sciences on Environmental Neuro- toxicology and on Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. The NAS report that he directed on pesticides and children’s health was in- strumental in securing passage of the Food Quality Protection Act, the major federal pesticide law in the United States. From 1995 to 1997, Dr. Landrigan served on the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veteran’s Illnesses. In 1997–1998, he served as senior advisor on chil- dren’s health to the EPA administrator and was instrumental in helping to establish a new Office of Children’s Health Protection at EPA. From 2000 to 2002, Dr. Landrigan served on the Armed Forces Epidemiologi- cal Board. He served from 1996 to 2005 in the Medical Corps of the U.S.

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333 APPENDIX D Naval Reserve. He continues to serve as deputy command surgeon gen- eral of the New York Naval Militia. Dr. Landrigan is known for his many decades of work in protecting children against environmental threats to health, most notably lead and pesticides. He has been a leader in developing the National Children’s Study, the largest study of chil- dren’s health and the environment ever launched in the United States. He has been centrally involved in the medical and epidemiologic studies that followed the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. Pat Levitt, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in neuroscience at the University of California–San Diego. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship in neu- roscience at Yale University School of Medicine. He was named a McKnight Foundation Scholar in 2002. Dr. Levitt also is an elected fel- low of AAAS and chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of Cure Autism Now. Dr. Levitt is a member of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, and the Na- tional Advisory Mental Health Council for NIMH. Dr. Levitt’s research interests are in the development of brain circuits that control learning and emotion. His clinical genetics and basic research studies focus on under- standing the basis of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, and how genes and the environment together influence typical and atypi- cal development. He has received a number of research grants from NIH, the McKnight Endowment Fund, the Joseph and Esther Klingenstein Foundation, the March of Dimes, and other foundations. Dr. Levitt serves on the editorial boards of Biological Psychiatry, Cerebral Cortex, and Neuron, and he was senior editor for the Journal of Neuroscience. He is the author or coauthor of more than170 scientific papers. Dr. Levitt is a frequently invited speaker at national and international seminars and conferences, as well as public education and policy forums that promote the health and education of children. Ian Lipkin, M.D., is professor of epidemiology in the Mailman School of Public Health, and director of the Columbia Center for Infection and Immunity. Through June 2002 Dr. Lipkin also held academic positions at the University of California–Irvine. He is internationally recognized as an authority on the use of molecular biological methods for pathogen discovery and the role of immune and microbial factors in neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Dr. Lipkin received a B.A. from Sarah Lawrence College, where he studied cultural anthropology, philosophy,

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334 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT and literature, and an M.D. from Rush Medical College. His postgraduate training included clerkship at the Queen Square Institute of Neurology in London; internship in medicine at the University of Pittsburgh; residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington; residency in neu- rology at UCSF; and fellowship in neurovirology and molecular neuro- biology at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA. His honors include National Multiple Sclerosis Society Postdoctoral Fellowship; Clinical Investigator Development Award, NIH, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke; Pew Scholar; Louise Turner Arnold Chair in the Neurosciences; and Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar in Global Infectious Diseases. Fernando D. Martinez, M.D., is director of the Arizona Respiratory Center and Swift-McNear Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Arizona in Tucson. His major research interests include the natural his- tory of childhood asthma, the genetic epidemiology of asthma and re- lated conditions, and the early development of the immune system as a risk factor for the development of asthma. Dr. Martinez is the director of one of five centers participating in the Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network, a national effort funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. He is also the recipient of two other current NIH grants. Dr. Martinez is an associate editor of Thorax and is a re- viewer for various journals, including Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, and European Respiratory Journal. He has written more than 150 journal articles, book chapters, editorials, and abstracts, and he has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences. Dr. Martinez received a medical license (equivalent to an M.D.) from the University of Chile in Santiago. He then completed a medical degree and a fellowship in pedi- atrics with a specialization in pulmonology at the University of Rome in Rome, Italy. Larry L. Needham, Ph.D., is chief of the Organic Analytical Toxicol- ogy Branch of the National Center for Environmental Health, CDC. He has served at CDC for more than 30 years in the area of assessing human exposure to environmental chemicals through biomonitoring. Dr. Needham has authored or coauthored about 400 publications in this area, with special emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls; pesticides; phthalates; perfluorinated chemicals; volatile or- ganic chemicals; and inorganic elements. Dr. Needham has received

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335 APPENDIX D many awards, including PHS’s Special Recognition and Superior Service Award; CDC’s honor award for outstanding scientific leadership; and in 2006 the International Society of Exposure Analysis’s (ISEA’s) most prestigious award, the Wesolowski Award, for his biomonitoring work. Dr. Needham serves on advisory boards for many scientific organizations and studies. In addition, he is a past president of ISEA, editor of Chemos- phere: Dioxins and Persistent Organic Pollutants, and federal co-chair of the exposure workgroup for planning for the National Children’s Study. He is also the initial recipient of ISEA’s Distinguished Lecturer Award. Craig Newschaffer, Ph.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Drexel University School of Public Health. Dr. Newschaffer recently joined the Drexel faculty, coming from the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. At Johns Hopkins, Dr. Newschaffer founded and directed the Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Epi- demiology, one of five federally funded centers of excellence in autism epidemiology. Major initiatives included the development of methods for monitoring autism spectrum disorders prevalence and participation in the largest population-based epidemiologic study of autism risk factors to date: the National Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Study of Autism and Child De- velopment. Dr. Newschaffer also is engaged in other projects focusing on how particular genes might interact with environmental exposures to in- crease autism risk. He recently began a collaboration with Peking Uni- versity to explore approaches for conducting epidemiologic research on autism in China. Dr. Newschaffer is an associate editor of the American Journal of Epidemiology and a member of the editorial board of the jour- nal Developmental Epidemiology. Mark Noble, Ph.D., is a pioneering researcher in the field of stem cell biology and CNS development. He was codiscoverer of the first progeni- tor cell to be isolated from the CNS, the progenitor cell that gives rise to myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. His laboratory then discovered cell– cell interactions and specific mitogens that control the division of these cells, along with conditions allowing greatly enhanced cell expansion in vitro. These discoveries led to the first use of purified precursor cell populations for repair of experimental CNS lesions. His laboratory also discovered adult-specific populations of progenitor cells, and the team of

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336 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT researchers with whom he works has played a central role in the discov- ery, isolation, and characterization of nearly all of the lineage-restricted progenitor cell populations that have been isolated from the developing CNS, characterized at the clonal level, and transplanted back into the CNS. Dr. Noble’s current research is focused on developing a compre- hensive approach to the field of stem cell medicine, research which in- cludes topics such as identifying the optimal cells for enhancing repair of spinal cord injury; the central importance of precursor cell dysfunction in developmental maladies; and the discovery of molecular mechanisms that underlie effects of environmentally relevant levels of chemically diverse toxicants on CNS precursor cells and that integrate stem cell bi- ology, redox biology, signaling pathway analysis, and toxicology into a mechanistic framework. Dr. Noble is professor of genetics, neurobiol- ogy, and anatomy at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and is codirector of the New York State Center of Research Excellence for Spi- nal Cord Injury. Isaac Pessah, Ph.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Mo- lecular Biosciences in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California–Davis. He is also director of the NIEHS/EPA Children’s Center for Environmental Health and Disease Preven- tion: Environmental Factors in the Etiology of Autism. Dr. Pessah is a toxicologist with research interest in the area of molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating signaling in excitable cells. His current research focuses on the structure, function, and pharmacology of the ryanodine- sensitive calcium channels (RyRs) found in sarcoplasmic and endoplas- mic reticulum of muscle cells and neurons. His laboratory is actively studying how dysfunction of RyRs complexes contribute to genetic dis- eases and how genetic alteration of RyRs and environmental factors in- teract to influence neurodevelopment by utilizing cellular, biochemical, and molecular investigations of calcium-signaling pathways. He is a sen- ior member of the NIEHS Center of Excellence in Toxicology and the Superfund Basic Research Program. William F. Raub, Ph.D., is science advisor to the secretary of Health and Human Services and deputy assistant secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness. Dr. Raub was acting assistant secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness from 2003 to 2004, principal deputy assistant secretary for Planning and Evaluation from 2000 to 2002, acting assistant secretary for Planning and Evaluation during 2001

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337 APPENDIX D and again during 2003, and deputy assistant secretary for Science Policy from 1995 to 2000. He was the science advisor to the EPA administrator from 1992 to 1995 after a 1-year assignment as special assistant for Health Affairs in the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Execu- tive Office of the President of the United States. Prior to that, he was the deputy director of NIH from 1986 through 1991. From 1989 through 1991, he was the acting director, NIH. From 1978 to 1986, Dr. Raub served first as associate director, and later deputy director, for Extramu- ral Research and Training at NIH. He was associate director of the Na- tional Eye Institute from 1975 to 1978 and chief of the Biotechnology Resources Branch in the Division of Research Resources from 1969 to 1975. From 1966 through 1979, Dr. Raub led the development of the PROPHET system, the first integrated array of computer-based tools for the study of the relationships between molecular structures and biologi- cal effects. Dr. Raub has received numerous awards from external or- ganizations for his government service, including the Society of Research Administrators’ Award for Distinguished Contribution to Re- search Administration, the American Medical Association’s Nathan Davis Award, and election as a fellow of the National Academy of Pub- lic Administration. In addition, within DHHS, he has twice been pre- sented the Distinguished Service Award and has received the Presidential Meritorious Executive Rank Award and the Presidential Distinguished Rank Award. Dr. Raub earned an A.B. in biology from Wilkes College and a Ph.D. in physiology from the University of Pennsylvania, where he also was awarded an NSF graduate fellowship and was a fellow of the Pennsylvania Plan. Lyn Redwood, R.N., M.S.N., CRNP, is a nurse practitioner and has worked in the nursing profession for 25 years specializing in pediatrics and women’s health care. In the late 1990s, she became involved in au- tism research when her son was diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified and found to be mercury toxic. Ms. Redwood is coauthor of Autism: A Novel Form of Mercury Toxicity and has testified before the Government Reform Committee on Mercury in Medicine on the question: Are we taking unnecessary risks? As a writer and researcher on autism and mercury toxicity, Ms. Redwood has been published in Neurotoxicology, Medical Hypothesis, Molecular Psychia- try, Mothering Magazine, and Autism-Aspergers Digest. She has also appeared on “Good Morning America” with Diane Sawyer and has been interviewed by U.S. News and World Report, Wired Magazine, and nu-

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338 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT merous other publications. Ms. Redwood is cofounder of the Coalition for SafeMinds and was featured prominently in the book “Evidence of Harm” by David Kirby. Diana E. Schendel, Ph.D., is lead health scientist and epidemiology team lead in the Developmental Disabilities Branch, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC. She serves as sci- ence liaison for CDC’s CADDRE and is principal investigator for CDC’s Georgia CADDRE study site. She coordinates scientific activities in CADDRE, including the CADDRE multisite study of autism (Study to Explore Early Development, or SEED), the largest epidemiologic study of the causes of autism planned to date. She serves as science liaison and CDC principal investigator for CDC’s Collaborative Public Health Re- search Program in Denmark with the Danish Agency for Science, Tech- nology and Innovation. Her professional research interests are in developmental disabilities epidemiology. She has been recognized for her work in autism (Secretary’s Award for Distinguished Service [2005], Autism Public Health Response Team, Secretary of Health and Human Services; CDC and ATSDR Group Honor Award [2002]), Research Op- erational, Autism Public Health Response Team) and cerebral palsy. She is a member of the epidemiology subcommittee of the Scientific Advi- sory Board of Autism Speaks and Scientific Advisory Board of the European Autism Information System. She received a B.S. in both biol- ogy and anthropology from Florida State University and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in anthropology from Pennsylvania State University. She began her career at Tufts University in the Department of Sociology and An- thropology, then joined CDC’s Division of Birth Defects and Develop- mental Disabilities as an epidemiologist. David A. Schwartz, M.D., biography in Workshop Planning Committee. Theodore A. Slotkin, Ph.D., received a Ph.D. in pharmacology and toxicology from the University of Rochester. He has done extensive re- search in the areas of developmental pharmacology and toxicology, neu- ropharmacology and neurochemistry, and cell differentiation and growth regulation. His research is aimed toward understanding the interaction of drugs, hormones, and environmental factors with the developing organ- ism, with particular emphasis on the fetal and neonatal nervous systems. His most notable achievements concern the effects of fetal exposure to drugs of abuse, especially tobacco and nicotine; drugs used in preterm

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339 APPENDIX D labor; and neuroactive pesticides. He has received numerous honors and awards for his research work, notably the Alton Ochsner Award Relating Smoking and Health, the John J. Abel Award in Pharmacology, and the Otto Krayer Award in Pharmacology, and has published more than 480 peer-reviewed articles. He has served on NIH Consensus Panels on Pharmacotherapies for Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy and on The Use of Antenatal Steroids. He has chaired review boards for the Califor- nia Tobacco-Related Diseases Research Program, and he serves on the editorial boards of three scholarly journals. He is among the 1 percent of “Most Cited Scientists in Pharmacology & Toxicology” identified by the Institute for Scientific Information. Sarah Spence, M.D., Ph.D., is a board-certified pediatric neurologist with a doctorate in neuropsychology and clinical and research expertise in autism spectrum disorders. She received her Ph.D. in cognitive neuro- science from UCLA in 1992 and her M.D. from UCSF in 1995. She completed her medical training in pediatrics and neurology at UCLA in 2000 and a fellowship in neurobehavioral genetics in 2001 with Dr. Daniel Geschwind while working with the Autism Genetic Resource Ex- change (AGRE), a gene bank created by the Cure Autism Now founda- tion. She then served on the UCLA medical school faculty, where she was a member of the Center for Autism Research and Treatment, respon- sible for overseeing research recruitment and assessment. She was medi- cal director of the Autism Evaluation Clinic, with an active practice specializing in children with autism spectrum disorder. Dr. Spence was recently recruited to the Division of Intramural Research at NIMH, where she is contributing to the design and administration of various clinical research protocols examining the phenomenology of and novel treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. She continues to work with community organizations as a neurological consultant to AGRE, a member of the Treatment Advisory Board and Autism Treat- ment Network steering committees for CAN, and the treatment subcom- mittee of the Scientific Advisory Committee for Autism Speaks. Her research interests include the role of epilepsy in autism, examination of the autism phenome, clinical trials in novel treatments, and the genetics of autism spectrum and related developmental disorders. Ezra Susser, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., is the Anna Cheskis Gelman and Murray Charles Gelman Professor and chair of the Department of Epi- demiology, and professor of psychiatry in the New York State Psychiat-

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340 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT ric Institute. His primary research has been on the epidemiology of men- tal disorders and on examining the role of early life experience in health and disease throughout the life course. His international collaborative birth cohort research program (The Imprints Center) seeks to uncover the causes of a broad range of disease and health outcomes, including psy- chiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, among others. Among the risk factors explored are prenatal exposures to infectious disease and toxic chemicals, childhood nutrition and environment, and genetics, as well as the interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors. Dr. Susser has also focused on public health initiatives regarding HIV/AIDS throughout his career, both locally and internationally. Susan Swedo, M.D., biography in Workshop Planning Committee. David R. Walt, Ph.D., is Robinson Professor of Chemistry at Tufts Uni- versity and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute professor. He received a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D. in chemi- cal biology from SUNY–Stony Brook. After postdoctoral studies at MIT, he joined the chemistry faculty at Tufts. He served as chemistry depart- ment chair from 1989 to 1996. Dr. Walt serves on many government ad- visory panels and boards and serves on the editorial advisory boards for numerous journals. From 1996 to 2003, he was executive editor of Ap- plied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Dr. Walt is the scientific founder and a director of Illumina, Inc. He has received numerous national and international awards and honors and is a fellow of AAAS. Dr. Walt has published over 200 papers, holds more than 40 patents, and has given hundreds of invited scientific presentations. Allen J. Wilcox, M.D., Ph.D., is a senior investigator in the Epidemiol- ogy Branch of NIEHS, NIH, where he has worked since 1979. He was chief of the Epidemiology Branch from 1991 to 2001, and since 2001 has served as the editor-in-chief of the journal Epidemiology. He is past president of the American Epidemiological Society, the Society for Epi- demiologic Research, and the Society for Pediatric Epidemiologic Re- search. He holds adjunct appointments as professor of epidemiology at the University of North Carolina and the University of Bergen (Norway), and has served on three IOM committees. He is a fellow in the American College of Epidemiology. His research area is reproductive and perinatal epidemiology, with special interest in early pregnancy, pregnancy loss,

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341 APPENDIX D and fetal growth and development. His current research project is on the genetic and environmental causes of cleft lip and cleft palate. He re- ceived a B.A. in psychology and an M.D. from the University of Michi- gan, and an M.P.H. in maternal and child health and a Ph.D. in epidemiology from UNC–Chapel Hill. STAFF Bruce M. Altevogt, Ph.D., is a senior program officer in the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the IOM. His primary interests focus on policy issues related to basic research and preparedness for catastrophic events. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University’s Program in Neuroscience. Following over 10 years of research, Dr. Altevogt joined the National Academies as a science and technology policy fellow with the Christine Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Graduate Fellow- ship Program. Since joining the Board on Health Sciences Policy, he has been a program officer on multiple IOM studies including, Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem, The National Academies’ Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: 2007 Amendments, and Assessment of the NIOSH Head-and- Face Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Respirator Users. He is currently serving as the director of the Neuroscience and Nervous System Disor- ders Forum and a co-study director on the National Academy of Sciences Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee. He received his B.A. from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, where he majored in biology and minored in South Asian studies. Andrew Pope, Ph.D., is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the IOM. With a Ph.D. in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope’s previous research activities focused on the neuroendo- crine and reproductive effects of various environmental substances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academies and since 1989 at the IOM, Dr. Pope has directed numerous studies; top- ics include injury control, disability prevention, biological markers, neu- rotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the enhancement of environmental and occupational health content in medical and nursing school curricu- lums. Most recently, Dr. Pope directed studies on NIH priority-setting processes, organ procurement and transplantation policy, and the role of science and technology in countering terrorism.

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342 AUTISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT Sarah L. Hanson is a senior program associate in the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the IOM. Ms. Hanson previously worked for the Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research. She is currently the senior program associate for the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders. Prior to joining the IOM, she served as research and program assistant at the National Research Center for Women & Fami- lies. Ms. Hanson has a B.A. from the University of Kansas with a double major in political science and international studies. She is currently taking premedicine courses at the University of Maryland and hopes to attend medical school in the future. Afrah J. Ali is a senior program assistant for the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the IOM. Earlier, she studied biology at Howard University. Ms. Ali has 7 years of integrated project management, execu- tive administration, publishing, event planning, research, and marketing experience. Her previous positions include marketing specialist at Stan- dard and Poor’s E-marketing division in New York City. Lora K. Taylor is a senior program assistant for the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the IOM. She has 15 years of experience working at the National Academies. Before joining the IOM she served as the ad- ministrative associate for the Report Review Committee and the Division on Life Sciences’ Ocean Studies Board. Ms. Taylor has a B.A. from Georgetown University with a double major in psychology and fine arts.