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A References Altshuler, D., and M. Daly. 2007. Guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Nat Genet 39(7):813–815. Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. 2007. ADNI sponsors. http://www.adni-info.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view &id=8&Itemid=30 (accessed August 9, 2007). American Academy of Emergency Medicine. 2007. Position statement on the use of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. http://www.aaem.org/positionstatements/thrombolytictherapy. php (accessed August 1, 2007). American Psychiatric Association. 2000. Diagnostic and statistical man- ual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Wash- ington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Apushkin, M. A., G. A. Fishman, and M. J. Janowicz. 2005. Correlation of optical coherence tomography findings with visual acuity and macu- lar lesions in patients with x-linked retinoschisis. Ophthalmology 112(3):495–501. Barch, D. M., C. S. Carter, T. S. Braver, F. W. Sabb, A. MacDonald 3rd, D. C. Noll, and J. D. Cohen. 2001. Selective deficits in prefrontal cor- tex function in medication-naive patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58(3):280–288. Berrettini, W. H. 2000. Are schizophrenic and bipolar disorders related? A review of family and molecular studies. Biol Psychiatry 48(6): 531–538. Biomarkers Definitions Working Group. 2001. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: Preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clin Pharmacol Ther 69(3):89–95. 71

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72 NEUROSCIENCE BIOMARKERS AND BIOSIGNATURES Bush, G., J. A. Frazier, S. L. Rauch, L. J. Seidman, P. J. Whalen, M. A. Jenike, B. R. Rosen, and J. Biederman. 1999. Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder revealed by FMRI and the counting stroop. Biol Psychiatry 45(12):1542–1552. Cannon, T. D., P. M. Thompson, T. G. van Erp, A. W. Toga, V. P. Poutanen, M. Huttunen, J. Lonnqvist, C. G. Standerskjold- Nordenstam, K. L. Narr, M. Khaledy, C. I. Zoumalan, R. Dail, and J. Kaprio. 2002. Cortex mapping reveals regionally specific patterns of genetic and disease-specific gray-matter deficits in twins discordant for schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(5):3228–3233. Chalela, J. A., C. S. Kidwell, L. M. Nentwich, M. Luby, J. A. Butman, A. M. Demchuk, M. D. Hill, N. Patronas, L. Latour, and S. Warach. 2007. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: A pro- spective comparison. Lancet 369(9558):293–298. Cho, R. Y., R. O. Konecky, and C. S. Carter. 2006. Impairments in fron- tal cortical gamma synchrony and cognitive control in schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(52):19878–19883. Craddock, N., M. C. O’Donovan, and M. J. Owen. 2005. The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Dissecting psychosis. J Med Genet 42(3):193–204. Daiger, S., and University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. 2007. Mapped and identified retinal disease genes 1980–2007: RetNet: Retinal Information Network. Edwards, A. O., R. Ritter 3rd, K. J. Abel, A. Manning, C. Panhuysen, and L. A. Farrer. 2005. Complement factor H polymorphism and age- related macular degeneration. Science 308(5720):421–424. Fairburn, C. G., and K. Bohn. 2005. Eating disorder NOS (EDNOS): An example of the troublesome “Not otherwise specified” (NOS) category in DSM-IV. Behav Res Ther 43(6):691–701. Fava, M., M. E. Schmidt, S. Zhang, J. Gonzales, N. J. Raute, and R. Judge. 2002. Treatment approaches to major depressive disorder re- lapse. Part 2: Reinitiation of antidepressant treatment. Psychother Psy- chosom 71(4):195–199. Fisher, J. B., D. A. Jacobs, C. E. Markowitz, S. L. Galetta, N. J. Volpe, M. L. Nano-Schiavi, M. L. Baier, E. M. Frohman, H. Winslow, T. C. Frohman, P. A. Calabresi, M. G. Maguire, G. R. Cutter, and L. J. Balcer. 2006. Relation of visual function to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmology 113(2):324–332.

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73 APPENDIX A Fleming, T. R. 2005. Surrogate endpoints and FDA’s accelerated approval process. Health Aff (Millwood) 24(1):67–78. Floyd, R. A. 1999. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and degenerative neu- rological disorders. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 222(3):236–245. Food and Drug Administration. March 2005. Guidance for industry pharmacogenomic data submissions. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration. Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. 2007. The biomarkers consortium: Advancing medical science. http://www.fnih.org/ Biomarkers%20Consortium/Biomarkers_home.shtml (accessed July 2, 2007). Franchini, L., A. Serretti, M. Gasperini, and E. Smeraldi. 1998. Familial concordance of fluvoxamine response as a tool for differentiating mood disorder pedigrees. J Psychiatr Res 32(5):255–259. Frohman, E., F. Costello, R. Zivadinov, O. Stuve, A. Conger, H. Winslow, A. Trip, T. Frohman, and L. Balcer. 2006. Optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol 5(10):853–863. Fuchs, V. R., and H. C. Sox, Jr. 2001. Physicians’ views of the relative importance of thirty medical innovations. Health Aff (Millwood) 20(5):30–42. Furlan, A. J., D. Eyding, G. W. Albers, Y. Al-Rawi, K. R. Lees, H. A. Rowley, C. Sachara, M. Soehngen, S. Warach, and W. Hacke. 2006. Dose escalation of desmoteplase for acute ischemic stroke (DEDAS): Evidence of safety and efficacy 3 to 9 hours after stroke onset. Stroke 37(5):1227–1231. Gibbons, R., C. Brown, K. Hur, S. Marcus, D. Bhaumik, J. Erkens, R. Herings, and J. Mann. 2007 (unpublished). Early evidence on the ef- fects of the FDA black box warning on the SSRI prescriptions and sui- cide in children and adolescents. Giovannoni, G. 2006. Multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Dis Markers 22(4):187–196. Gottesman, I. I., and D. L. Wolfgram. 1991. Schizophrenia genesis: The origins of madness. New York: W. H. Freeman. Green, M. F. 1996. What are the functional consequences of neurocogni- tive deficits in schizophrenia? Am J Psychiatry 153(3):321–330. Gu, X., S. G. Meer, M. Miyagi, M. E. Rayborn, J. G. Hollyfield, J. W. Crabb, and R. G. Salomon. 2003. Carboxyethylpyrrole protein adducts and autoantibodies, biomarkers for age-related macular degeneration. J Biol Chem 278(43):42027–42035.

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74 NEUROSCIENCE BIOMARKERS AND BIOSIGNATURES Haines, J. L., M. A. Hauser, S. Schmidt, W. K. Scott, L. M. Olson, P. Gallins, K. L. Spencer, S. Y. Kwan, M. Noureddine, J. R. Gilbert, N. Schnetz-Boutaud, A. Agarwal, E. A. Postel, and M. A. Pericak-Vance. 2005. Complement factor H variant increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Science 308(5720):419–421. Heinrichs, R. W., and K. K. Zakzanis. 1998. Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12(3):426–445. Hobart, J., J. Freeman, and A. Thompson. 2000. Kurtzke scales revisited: The application of psychometric methods to clinical intuition. Brain 123(Pt 5):1027–1040. Hoekstra, R. A., M. Bartels, C. J. Verweij, and D. I. Boomsma. 2007. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161(4):372–377. Huhmer, A. F., R. G. Biringer, H. Amato, A. N. Fonteh, and M. G. Harrington. 2006. Protein analysis in human cerebrospinal fluid: Physiological aspects, current progress and future challenges. Dis Markers 22(1–2):3–26. Hyman, S. 2007a. Biomarkers in psychiatric disorders. Presentation at IOM Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders work- shop—Neuroscience Biomarkers and Biosignatures: Converging Technologies, Emerging Partnerships, Washington, DC, February 26– 27. ———. 2007b. Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V? Nat Rev Neurosci 8(9):725–732. Irizarry, M. C. 2004. Biomarkers of Alzheimer disease in plasma. NeuroRx 1(2):226–234. Kalivas, P. W., and N. D. Volkow. 2005. The neural basis of addiction: A pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry 162(8):1403– 1413. Kellendonk, C., E. H. Simpson, H. J. Polan, G. Malleret, S. Vronskaya, V. Winiger, H. Moore, and E. R. Kandel. 2006. Transient and selective overexpression of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum causes persis- tent abnormalities in prefrontal cortex functioning. Neuron 49(4):603– 615. Kendler, K. S., and C. O. Gardner, Jr. 1998. Boundaries of major depres- sion: An evaluation of DSM-IV criteria. Am J Psychiatry 155(2):172– 177.

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75 APPENDIX A Kendler, K. S., A. C. Heath, N. G. Martin, and L. J. Eaves. 1987. Symp- toms of anxiety and symptoms of depression. Same genes, different environments? Arch Gen Psychiatry 44(5):451–457. Kessler, R. C., W. T. Chiu, O. Demler, K. R. Merikangas, and E. E. Walters. 2005. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(6):617–627. Kidwell, C. S., J. R. Alger, and J. L. Saver. 2003. Beyond mismatch: Evolving paradigms in imaging the ischemic penumbra with multi- modal magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke 34(11):2729–2735. Klein, R. J., C. Zeiss, E. Y. Chew, J. Y. Tsai, R. S. Sackler, C. Haynes, A. K. Henning, J. P. SanGiovanni, S. M. Mane, S. T. Mayne, M. B. Bracken, F. L. Ferris, J. Ott, C. Barnstable, and J. Hoh. 2005. Com- plement factor H polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration. Science 308(5720):385–389. Koob, G. F. 2006. The neurobiology of addiction: A neuroadaptational view relevant for diagnosis. Addiction 101(Suppl 1):23–30. Lage, G., S. Buervenich, H. Manji, A. J. Rush, A. Wilson, D. Charney, and F. J. McMahon. 2007 (unpublished). Genetic markers of suicidal ideation emerging during antidepressant treatment. Lai, E., J. Riley, I. Purvis, and A. Roses. 1998. A 4-Mb high-density single nucleotide polymorphism-based map around human APOE. Genomics 54(1):31–38. Lefebvre, S., L. Burglen, S. Reboullet, O. Clermont, P. Burlet, L. Viollet, B. Benichou, C. Cruaud, P. Millasseau, M. Zeviani, D. LePaslier, J. Frezal, D. Cohen, J. Weissenbach. A. Munnich, and J. Melki. 1995. Identification and characterization of a spinal muscular atrophy- determining gene. Cell 80(1):155–165. Leonard, S., J. Gault, J. Hopkins, J. Logel, R. Vianzon, M. Short, C. Drebing, R. Berger, D. Venn, P. Sirota, G. Zerbe, A. Olincy, R. G. Ross, L. E. Adler, and R. Freedman. 2002. Association of promoter variants in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene with an inhibitory deficit found in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(12):1085–1096. Lewis, D. A., T. Hashimoto, and D. W. Volk. 2005. Cortical inhibitory neurons and schizophrenia. Nat Rev Neurosci 6(4):312–324. Lycke, J. N., J. E. Karlsson, O. Andersen, and L. E. Rosengren. 1998. Neurofilament protein in cerebrospinal fluid: A potential marker of ac- tivity in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64(3):402– 404.

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76 NEUROSCIENCE BIOMARKERS AND BIOSIGNATURES Martin, E. R., E. H. Lai, J. R. Gilbert, A. R. Rogala, A. J. Afshari, J. Riley, K. L. Finch, J. F. Stevens, K. J. Livak, B. D. Slotterbeck, S. H. Slifer, L. L. Warren, P. M. Conneally, D. E. Schmechel, I. Purvis, M. A. Pericak-Vance, A. D. Roses, and J. M. Vance. 2000. SNPing away at complex diseases: Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms around APOE in Alzheimer disease. Am J Hum Genet 67(2):383–394. Mayberg, H. S., A. M. Lozano, V. Voon, H. E. McNeely, D. Seminowicz, C. Hamani, J. M. Schwalb, and S. H. Kennedy. 2005. Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron 45(5):651–660. McFarland, H. F., F. Barkhof, J. Antel, and D. H. Miller. 2002. The role of MRI as a surrogate outcome measure in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 8(1):40–51. McMahon, F. J., S. Buervenich, D. Charney, R. Lipsky, A. J. Rush, A. F. Wilson, A. J. Sorant, G. J. Papanicolaou, G. Laje, M. Fava, M. H. Trivedi, S. R. Wisniewski, and H. Manji. 2006. Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of anti- depressant treatment. Am J Hum Genet 78(5):804–814. McMahon, F. J., S. Paddock, A. Wilson, D. Charney, H. K. Manji, G. Laje, R. J. Lipsky, and A. J. Rush. 2007. Pharmacogenetics of treat- ment outcome and side effects in the STAR*D cohort. Biol Psychiatry 61(8S):1995. McShane, L. M., D. G. Altman, W. Sauerbrei, S. E. Taube, M. Gion, and G. M. Clark. 2005. Reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies (remark). Nat Clin Pract Urol 2(8):416–422. Meyer-Lindenberg, A., J. W. Buckholtz, B. Kolachana, A. R. Hariri, L. Pezawas, G. Blasi, A. Wabnitz, R. Honea, B. Verchinski, J. H. Calli- cott, M. Egan, V. Mattay, and D. R. Weinberger. 2006. Neural mecha- nisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(16):6269–6274. Monani, U. R. 2005. Spinal muscular atrophy: A deficiency in a ubiquitous protein; a motor neuron-specific disease. Neuron 48(6):885–896. Monani, U. R., M. Sendtner, D. D. Coovert, D. W. Parsons, C. Andreassi, T. T. Le, S. Jablonka, B. Schrank, W. Rossol, T. W. Prior, G. E. Morris, and A. H. Burghes. 2000. The human centromeric sur- vival motor neuron gene (SMN2) rescues embryonic lethality in SMN(-/-) mice and results in a mouse with spinal muscular atrophy. Hum Mol Genet 9(3):333–339.

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