adult (but not immature) vector population densities, and (2) that the vast majority of human dengue infections occur in the home. Advantages to insect control strategies focused within homes can transcend Ae. aegypti and dengue—and even vector-borne disease—by decreasing population densities and lifespans of various disease-transmitting insects, as well as those of pests such as bed bugs, cockroaches, and filth flies. Thus, Scott and Morrison conclude, “what was originally conceived as an Ae. aegypti control program can be leveraged into a cost and operationally effective public health program that reduces a variety of diseases and pest problems.”

The second essay in this chapter, from Lars Eisen and workshop presenter Barry Beaty of Colorado State University, discusses initiatives by a private-public partnership, the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC; see also Summary and Assessment section, “Disease Prevention Strategies”), to reduce the impact of dengue. The consortium is funding the construction of a computer-based decision support system to inform the design and implementation of effective local and regional vector control programs, as well as the development and dissemination of proactive indoor vector control measures. A second paper by Beaty and Eisen in Chapter 3 reviews public health and scientific responses to a broad range of vector-borne disease issues raised in the Institute of Medicine report Microbial Threats to Health (2003).

A subsequent paper, by presenter Lyle Petersen of the CDC, describes the history and impact of WNV in the United States and identifies challenges to the surveillance and prevention of this emerging vector-borne disease in his contribution to this chapter. As part of its response to the 1999 WNV outbreak in New York City, the CDC established ArboNET, the first national human-animal disease surveillance system. Administered by the CDC, ArboNET is a real-time electronic reporting system that captures data on WNV in humans, dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and live captive sentinels of disease (chickens). “A combination of human and veterinary surveillance will be essential to monitor the ongoing ecological impact of WNV and to guide disease prevention efforts,” Petersen concludes. The experience with WNV demonstrates that the epidemiological pattern in areas of importation of an exotic arbovirus may bear little resemblance to that which occurred in its previously endemic area.

As discussed in the Summary and Assessment (see “Weather, Climate, and Prediction”) and in Chapter 1, a climate-based model predicted a recent outbreak of RVF in Kenya, significantly improving response time and outcome. In his contribution to this chapter, workshop presenter C. J. Peters, of the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, discusses the epidemiology and ecology of RVF—essential factors in its status as an emerging arboviral disease agent—and describes work in progress toward the development of veterinary and human vaccines to achieve better control of this deadly and costly disease. Peters warns of the potential of the RVF virus to expand its geographic range to the United



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