FIGURE 2-4 Phylogenetic tree of West Nile virus. Only lineage 1 viruses are frequently associated with human or animal disease. Note the genetic similarity of isolates identified from recent human outbreaks in Romania, Senegal, Morocco, Russia, Israel, and the United States. The U.S. isolates are nearly genetically identical to those found in Israel, suggesting importation from the Middle East.

SOURCE: From Lanciotti et al. (1999). Reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Surveillance

Response to the 1999 New York City outbreak included the creation of the first and currently only national human-veterinary disease surveillance system, called ArboNET. Administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), ArboNET is a real-time electronic reporting system that captures data on WNV in humans, dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and live captive sentinels (chickens) (Gubler et al., 2000). These data are collected and reported to CDC



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