plant health preparedness; prevention, control, and therapeutic measures; scientific and technological advances; and integration strategies to address current and future threats.

ORGANIZATION OF THE WORKSHOP SUMMARY

This workshop summary was prepared for the Forum membership in the name of the rapporteurs and includes a collection of individually authored papers and commentary. Sections of the workshop summary not specifically attributed to an individual reflect the views of the rapporteurs and not those of the Forum on Microbial Threats, its sponsors, or the IOM. The contents of the unattributed sections are based on the presentations and discussions at the workshop.

The workshop summary is organized into chapters as a topic-by-topic description of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. Its purpose is to present lessons from relevant experience, to delineate a range of pivotal issues and their respective problems, and to offer potential responses as described by workshop participants.

Although this workshop summary provides an account of the individual presentations, it also reflects an important aspect of the Forum philosophy. The workshop functions as a dialogue among representatives from different sectors and allows them to present their beliefs about which areas may merit further attention. The reader should be aware, however, that the material presented here expresses the views and opinions of the individuals participating in the workshop and not the deliberations and conclusions of a formally constituted IOM study committee. These proceedings summarize only the statements of participants in the workshop and are not intended to be an exhaustive exploration of the subject matter or a representation of consensus evaluation.

THE VECTOR-BORNE DISEASE THREAT: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

Resurgence and Emergence of Human Vector-Borne Diseases

Infectious diseases transmitted by insects and other animal vectors have long been associated with significant human illness and death. In the 17th through early 20th centuries, human morbidity and mortality due to vector-borne diseases outstripped that from all other causes combined (Gubler, 1998). The early 20th century discovery that mosquitoes transmitted diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and dengue led quickly to the draining of swamps and ditches where mosquitoes bred, and eventually to the use of pesticides, which reduced populations of these disease vectors. The adoption of vector control measures, including the



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