related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.

Margaret A. Hamburg, M.D. (Vice Chair), was the founding vice president for Biological Programs at the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and ran the program for many years. She currently serves as senior scientist for the organization. She completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. Before taking on her current position, she was the assistant secretary for planning and evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), serving as a principal policy advisor to the secretary of health and human services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for nearly 6 years as the commissioner of health for the city of New York. As chief health officer in the nation’s largest city, her many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases, the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels, and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the IOM, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the American College of Physicians.

P. Frederick Sparling, M.D. (Vice Chair), is the J. Herbert Bate Professor Emeritus of Medicine, Microbiology, and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, and Professor of Medicine, Duke University. He is director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center and also the Southeast Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infections. Previously he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) from 1996 to 1997. He was also a member of the IOM Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1990-1992) and the IOM Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century (2001-2003). Dr. Sparling’s laboratory research has been on the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His work helped to define genetics of antibiotic resistance in gonococci, and the role of iron scavenging systems in pathogenesis of human gonorrhea.

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