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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
This project was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Food and Drug Administration; U.S. Department of Defense: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and Defense Threat Reduction Agency; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs; U.S. Department of Homeland Security; U.S. Agency for International Development; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; American Society for Microbiology; Sanofi Pasteur; Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Pfizer; GlaxoSmithKline; Infectious Diseases Society of America; and the Merck Company Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10897-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10897-7
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Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.
COVER: A detailed section of a stained glass window 21” × 56” depicting the natural history of influenza viruses and zoonotic exchange in the emergence of new strains was used to design the front cover. Based on the work done at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital supported by American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Artist: Jenny Hammond, Highgreenleycleugh, Northumberland, England.
Institute of Medicine. 2008. Vector-borne diseases: understanding the environmental, human health, and ecological connections. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.