1-14

 

NDVI (dashed line) and rainfall anomalies (bars) for Lamu, Kenya, between 1998 and 2006,

 

82

1-15

 

Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) anomalies between January 1950 and 2006,

 

82

1-16

 

Diama Dam on Senegal River (left), and resulting flooding (center) and vegetation development (right) in Mauritania in January 1988 after the closure of dam,

 

83

1-17

 

SST anomalies for October 2006 (top) and OLR anomalies for October 2006 (bottom),

 

85

1-18

 

Shipping lanes entering eastern U.S. ports and inland container facilities from offshore destinations,

 

87

1-19

 

Variations in the mean surface temperatures recorded (using thermometers) across the planet in the past 140 years (a) and (using a combination of tree-ring, coral, and ice-core analysis and, for recent decades, thermometers) in the northern hemisphere over the past 10,000 years (b),

 

89

1-20

 

The increasing trend in strong tropical storms seen over the last 50 years,

 

91

1-21

 

The potential impact of sea-level rise on Bangladesh,

 

92

1-22

 

As this graph produced by McDonald (1957) illustrates, air temperature has a marked effect on the extrinsic incubation periods (EIPs—the times taken by the parasites to produce sporozoites in their mosquito vectors) of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax,

 

97

1-23

 

Areas of the African highlands that, though currently nonendemic, are probably vulnerable to malaria as the result of climate warming ,

 

98

1-24

 

Comparison of the maximum (○), mean (□), and minimum (Δ) temperatures recorded within huts in deforested agricultural lands with the corresponding maximum (•), mean (■), and minimum (▲) temperatures recorded within huts in forests,

 

99

1-25

 

Correlation between simulated, climate-driven variations in Aedes aegypti mosquito density (○) and observed variations in the annual numbers of cases (•) of dengue, including dengue haemorrhagic fever, in three countries,

 

101

1-26

 

The World Health Organization’s estimates of mortality attributable to climate change by the year 2000,

 

103

1-27

 

Decrease in the time before an infectious mosquito can retransmit a virus or extrinsic incubation period from laboratory experiments,

 

109

1-28

 

(A) Long-term climatological average summer (June-September) temperatures for the United States and (B-D) anomalies for each summer from 2002 to 2004,

 

110

2-1

 

Flow scheme for a Dengue Decision Support System,

 

154



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