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Satellite ObServatiOnS tO benefit Science and SOciety ReCommenDeD missions foR the next DeCaDe THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C.

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earth Science and applicatiOnS frOm Space ii this booklet is based on the report Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Impera- tives for the Next Decade and Beyond, available at no cost as a PDf file at catalog.php?record_id=11820. Details about obtaining printed copies of that report, together with more information about the space studies Board and its activities, can be found at http://www7. the space studies Board is a unit of the national Research Council, which serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical ques- tions of national importance. the decadal survey that produced Earth Science and Applications from Space was sponsored by the national aeronautics and space administration (nasa), the national oceanic and atmospheric administration (noaa), and the U.s. Geological survey (UsGs); organized by the space studies Board; and conducted by the Committee on earth science and applications from space: a Community assessment and strategy for the future, with input from seven study panels. support for the preparation and production of this booklet was provided by nasa (science mission Directorate), noaa (national environmental satellite Data and information service), and UsGs (Geography). support for the production of this publication was also provided by the Presidents’ Circle Communications initiative of the national academies. the committee extends special thanks to Robert henson, who wrote the text of the booklet, and to Van nguyen, who designed it. international standard Book number-13: 978-0-309-10903-1 international standard Book number-10: 0-309-10903-5 Copies of this booklet are available free of charge from the space studies Board, national Research Council, 500 fifth street, n.W., Washington, DC 20001. additional copies are available from the national academies Press, 500 fifth street, n.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); internet, Copyright 2008 by the national academy of sciences. all rights reserved. Printed in the United states of america

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earth Science and applicatiOnS frOm Space iii COMMITTEE ON EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE: A COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE RiChaRD a. anthes, University Corporation for atmospheric Research, Co-chair BeRRien mooRe iii, University of new hampshire, Co-chair James G. anDeRson, harvard University sUsan K. aVeRY, University of Colorado at Boulder eRiC J. BaRRon, University of texas at austin otis B. BRoWn, JR.,1 University of miami sUsan L. CUtteR, University of south Carolina RUth s. DefRies, University of maryland, College Park WiLLiam B. GaiL, microsoft Virtual earth BRaDfoRD h. haGeR, massachusetts institute of technology anthonY hoLLinGsWoRth,2 european Centre for medium-Range Weather forecasts anthonY C. Janetos, Joint Global Change Research institute KathRYn a. KeLLY, University of Washington neaL f. Lane, Rice University Dennis P. LettenmaieR, University of Washington BRUCe D. maRCUs, tRW, inc. (retired) WaRRen m. WashinGton, national Center for atmospheric Research maRK L. WiLson, University of michigan maRY LoU ZoBaCK, Risk management solutions Consultant staCeY W. BoLanD, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Staff aRthUR ChaRo, study Director, space studies Board theResa m. fisheR, Program associate, space studies Board CatheRine a. GRUBeR, assistant editor, space studies Board ____________________ 1term ended January 2006. 2the committee notes with deep regret anthony hollingsworth’s death on July 29, 2007. PANEL ON EARTH SCIENCE APPLICATIONS AND SOCIETAL BENEFITS anthonY C. Janetos, Joint Global Change Research institute, Chair RoBeRta BaLstaD, Columbia University, Vice Chair JaY aPt, Carnegie mellon University PhiLiP e. aRDanUY, Raytheon information solutions R anDaLL fRieDL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory miChaeL f. GooDChiLD, University of California, santa Barbara moLLY K. maCaULeY, Resources for the future, inc. GoRDon mcBean, University of Western ontario DaViD L. sKoLe, michigan state University LeiGh WeLLinG, Crown of the Continent Learning Center thomas J. WiLBanKs, oak Ridge national Laboratory GaRY W. Yohe, Wesleyan University

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earth Science and applicatiOnS frOm Space iv PANEL ON LAND-USE CHANGE, ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS, AND BIODIVERSITY RUth s. DefRies, University of maryland, College Park, Chair otis B. BRoWn, JR., University of miami, Vice Chair maRK R. aBBott, oregon state University ChRistoPheR B. fieLD, Carnegie institution of Washington ineZ Y. fUnG, University of California, Berkeley maRC LeVY, Center for international earth sciences information network James J. mcCaRthY, harvard University JeRRY m. meLiLLo, marine Biological Laboratory DaViD s. sChimeL, national Center for atmospheric Research PANEL ON WEATHER SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS sUsan K. aVeRY, University of Colorado at Boulder, Chair thomas h. VonDeR haaR, Colorado state University, Vice Chair eDWaRD V. BRoWeLL, nasa Langley Research Center WiLLiam B. CaDe iii, air force Weather agency BRaDLeY R. CoLman, national Weather service eUGenia KaLnaY, University of maryland, College Park ChRistoPheR RUf, University of michigan CaRL f. sChUeLeR, Raytheon Company JeRemY UsheR, Weathernews americas, inc. ChRistoPheR s. VeLDen, University of Wisconsin–madison RoBeRt a. WeLLeR, Woods hole oceanographic institution PANEL ON CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE eRiC J. BaRRon, University of texas at austin, Chair JoYCe e. PenneR, University of michigan, Vice Chair GReGoRY CaRBone, University of south Carolina James a. CoaKLeY, JR., oregon state University saRah t. GiLLe, scripps institution of oceanography Kenneth C. JeZeK, ohio state University JUDith L. Lean, naval Research Laboratory GUDRUn maGnUsDottiR, University of California, irvine PaoLa maLanotte-RiZZoLi, massachusetts institute of technology miChaeL oPPenheimeR, Princeton University CLaiRe L. PaRKinson, nasa Goddard space flight Center miChaeL J. PRatheR, University of California, irvine maRK R. sChoeBeRL, nasa Goddard space flight Center BYRon D. taPLeY, University of texas at austin PANEL ON WATER RESOURCES AND THE GLOBAL HYDROLOGIC CYCLE Dennis P. LettenmaieR, University of Washington, Chair anne W. noLin, oregon state University, Vice Chair WiLfRieD h. BRUtsaeRt, Cornell University annY CaZenaVe, Centre national d’etudes spatiales CaRoL anne CLaYson, florida state University Jeff DoZieR, University of California, santa Barbara DaRa enteKhaBi, massachusetts institute of technology RiChaRD foRsteR, University of Utah

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earth Science and applicatiOnS frOm Space v ChaRLes D.D. hoWaRD, independent Consultant ChRistian D. KUmmeRoW, Colorado state University steVen W. RUnninG, University of montana ChaRLes J. VoRosmaRtY, University of new hampshire PANEL ON HUMAN HEALTH AND SECURITY maRK L. WiLson, University of michigan, Chair Rita R. CoLWeLL, University of maryland, College Park, Vice Chair DanieL G. BRoWn, University of michigan WaLteR f. DaBBeRDt, Vaisala, inc. WiLLiam f. DaVenhaLL, environmental systems Research institute (esRi) John R. DeLaneY, University of Washington GReGoRY GLass, Johns hopkins Bloomberg school of Public health DanieL J. JaCoB, harvard University James h. maGUiRe, University of maryland at Baltimore school of medicine PaUL m. maUGhan, myosite Diagnostics, inc. Joan B. Rose, michigan state University RonaLD B. smith, Yale University PatRiCia a. testeR, noaa national ocean service PANEL ON SOLID-EARTH HAZARDS, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND DYNAMICS BRaDfoRD h. haGeR, massachusetts institute of technology, Chair sUsan L. BRantLeY, Pennsylvania state University, Vice Chair JeRemY BLoxham, harvard University RiChaRD K. eisneR, state of California, Governor’s office of emergency services aLexanDeR f.h. GoetZ, University of Colorado at Boulder ChRistian J. Johannsen, Purdue University James W. KiRChneR, University of California, Berkeley WiLLiam i. Rose, michigan technological University haResh C. shah, stanford University DiRK smit, shell exploration and Production technology Company hoWaRD a. ZeBKeR, stanford University maRia t. ZUBeR, massachusetts institute of technology STAFF aRthUR ChaRo, study Director, space studies Board theResa m. fisheR, Program associate, space studies Board WiLLiam LoGan, senior staff officer, Water science and technology Board RaYmonD WasseL, senior Program officer, Board on environmental studies and toxicology anne m. Linn,1 senior Program officer, Board on earth sciences and Resources Dan WaLKeR,2 senior Program officer, ocean studies Board sanDRa J. GRaham,3 senior Program officer, space studies Board CURtis maRshaLL,3 Program officer, Board on atmospheric sciences and Climate CaRmeLa J. ChamBeRLain, Program associate, space studies Board CeLeste naYLoR, senior Program assistant, space studies Board ____________ 1through may 2005. 2through June 2006. 3from august 2006.

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earth Science and applicatiOnS frOm Space vi ANTHONY HOLLINGSWORTH It was with great sadness that the committee and the panels of the decadal survey learned of the death of Anthony Hollingsworth on July 29, 2007. Tony was one of the leaders of the decadal survey, arguing for the importance of diverse observations from satellites and other platforms to produce the most accurate and consistent analysis of the Earth system possible for initializing pre- diction models of the atmosphere, oceans, and land. A longtime scientist at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Tony was a giant among his peers in numerical weather prediction and analysis, data assimilation, and the use of weather forecasts to meet broad societal needs. Tony was dedicated to the use of satellite obser- vations of Earth to improve weather predictions for the benefit of society. He worked tirelessly in the scientific and political trenches of the world, always sharing his knowledge and valuable ideas with others in his gentle, unselfish way. He inspired people of all ages throughout his long and productive career, which still ended all too soon. He was a close friend of all who were fortunate enough to know him well. We will miss him greatly. Richard a. anthes and Berrien moore iii, Co-chairs, on behalf of the Committee on earth science and applications from space and the seven study panels

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cOntentS 1 an integrated strategy: satellite observations to Benefit science and society 5 selecting and Prioritizing the missions 8 Recommended missions 10 aCe, aerosol-Cloud-ecosystems 11 asCenDs, active sensing of Co2 emissions over nights, Days, and seasons 12 CLaRReo, Climate absolute Radiance and Refractivity observatory 13 DesDyni, Deformation, ecosystem structure, and Dynamics of ice 14 GaCm, Global atmospheric Composition mission 15 Geo-CaPe, Geostationary Coastal and air Pollution events 16 GPsRo, operational GPs Radio occultation 17 GRaCe-ii, Gravity Recovery and Climate experiment ii 18 hyspiRi, hyperspectral infrared imager 19 iCesat-ii, ice, Cloud, and Land elevation satellite ii 20 List, Lidar surface topography 21 Path, Precipitation and all-Weather temperature and humidity 22 sCLP, snow and Cold Land Processes 23 smaP, soil moisture active-Passive 24 sWot, surface Water and ocean topography 25 3D-Winds, three-Dimensional tropospheric Winds 26 xoVWm, extended ocean Vector Winds mission 27 from satellite observations to earth information inside back cover Credits for illustrations vii

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earth Science and applicatiOnS frOm Space viii Together with spacecraft operated by NOAA and U.S. international partners, NASA's Earth Observing System, a coordinated series of low-Earth-orbiting satellites, provides observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans that are essential to understanding and predicting global environmental change. (not shown: seaWifs.) Number of U.S. space-based Earth observation instruments in the current decade, based on information from NASA and NOAA Web sites for mission durations.