TABLE 4.1 Implementation Options for Principal Science Concepts

Science Concepts

Implementation

(a)

Information Extraction

(b)

Orbital Measurements

(c)

Sample Return

(d)

Landed Experiments, Instruments, and Rovers

(e)

Human Fieldwork

The science goals for each concept are discussed in detail in the text (see Chapter 3).

An enabling new frame work for lunar exploration will be provided by data from SMART-1, SELENE, Chang’e, Chandrayaan-1, and LRO. The assumption is that all missions and key instruments will be successful.

Orbital measurements are not included in the complement of missions planned for launch by 2008. The assumption is that the four missions planned will return appropriate data as planned; if not, new measurements that provide similar high-priority compositional and geophysical data need to be acquired.

The types of returned samples and of science analyses required are identified.

These include science measurements for/from landed sites; category also encompasses penetrators/impactors.

Science areas that specifically benefit from human capabilities are identified.

1. The bombardment history of the inner solar system is uniquely revealed on the Moon.

Crater counts of benchmark terrain using high-resolution images.

Targeted higher-resolution images of specific terrains.

Sample return from the impact-melt sheet of SPA, from young basalt flows, and frombenchmark craters (e.g., Copernicus and Tycho).

Development of insitu instrumentation for dating.

Field observations provide critical geologic context; human interaction improves chances of obtaining best/most appropriate samples.

2.The structure andcomposition of the lunar interior provide fundamental information on the evolution of a differentiated planetary body.

Farside gravity. High-quality topographic information. Possible information on heat flow and magnetic sounding results.

Relay orbiter for farside stations (e.g., relay of seismic data).

Samples from the interior are important constraints on lunar geochemistry and geophysics (e.g., remanent magnetism).

Simultaneous, globally distributed seismic and heat flow network. Expanded retroreflector network.

Although some landed experiments can beemplaced autonomously, it is assumed that more capable sensors are possible with human guidance/assistance.

3. Key planetary pro-cesses are manifested in the diversity of lunar crustal rocks.

Detailed global elemental and mineralogical information in a spatial context. Search for and documentation of a diversity of rock types using returned samples and lunar meteorites. Perform high-resolution mapping of lunar crustal magnetic fields.

Higher-spatial-resolution compositionaldata are desirable from priority targets. Relay orbiter for farside stations (e.g., relay of seismic data). Magnetic survey from 10 km orbit.

Return samples from priority targets. Every return mission should include a bulk soil and a sieved sample with geologic documentation.

Strategic site selection. Conduct in situ analyses and mineralogical and elemental characterization of the rocks and provide a thorough description of the geologic context. Determine thevertical structure using an active regional seismic network.

Field observations provide critical geologic context; human interaction improves chances of obtaining best/most appropriate samples.



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