1
Introduction

The protection of soldiers in environments where they are exposed to chemical-warfare agents remains a need of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and it is necessary to test protective equipment for effectiveness under such conditions. Ideally, DOD would like to have the capability for testing and evaluating (T&E) individual protection ensembles (IPE) with real chemical agents in authentic war-fighter environments—which would fill a gap in IPE testing and evaluation (Figure 1.1). Since it is not possible to use real chemical agents on human test subjects, such DOD efforts as the Man-in-Simulant Test (MIST) perform full-system IPE T&E with chemical simulants. DOD also performs T&E on IPE components with chemical agents, but this does not fulfill its desire for full-system testing.

To avoid the use of human subjects, testers are increasingly moving toward the use of a wide array of robots and mannequins. For example, human-size thermal mannequins have been used to test soldier uniforms and protective garments. There is also growing interest in making mannequins more human-like by adding realistic motion and other human characteristics, such as body temperature and sweating, to provide more advanced testing capabilities. Examples of those efforts are discussed briefly in this chapter and in more detail later (see chapters 2 and 4). To determine the feasibility of developing an advanced humanoid robot—the Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin (PETMAN)—to enhance chemical-warfare IPE testing, PD TESS requested that the National Research Council conduct a study that would:



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1 Introduction The protection of soldiers in environments where they are exposed to chemical-warfare agents remains a need of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and it is necessary to test protective equipment for effectiveness under such conditions. Ideally, DOD would like to have the capability for testing and evaluating (T&E) individual protection ensembles (IPE) with real chemical agents in authentic war-fighter environments—which would fill a gap in IPE testing and evaluation (Figure 1.1). Since it is not possible to use real chemical agents on human test subjects, such DOD efforts as the Man-in-Simulant Test (MIST) perform full-system IPE T&E with chemical simulants. DOD also performs T&E on IPE components with chemical agents, but this does not fulfill its desire for full-system testing. To avoid the use of human subjects, testers are increasingly moving toward the use of a wide array of robots and mannequins. For example, human-size thermal mannequins have been used to test soldier uniforms and protective garments. There is also growing interest in making man- nequins more human-like by adding realistic motion and other human characteristics, such as body temperature and sweating, to provide more advanced testing capabilities. Examples of those efforts are discussed briefly in this chapter and in more detail later (see chapters 2 and 4). To determine the feasibility of developing an advanced humanoid robot—the Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin (PETMAN)—to enhance chemical-warfare IPE testing, PD TESS requested that the National Research Council conduct a study that would: 

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 SOLDIER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT • Determine the feasibility of a PETMAN system on the basis of all delineated PD TESS design requirements for such a system. • Focus on the significant design challenges associated with the PD TESS PETMAN system and whether and how they might be addressed. • Discuss the cost-benefit and risk-benefit trade-offs associated with various design approaches to a PETMAN system. • Discuss whether and how some of or all the necessary protection ensemble test capability could be obtained if a full PETMAN sys- tem were infeasible and discuss the cost-benefit and risk-benefit trade-offs of alternatives. Performance Operationally MIST Modeling Relevant System Modeling Number of Candidates Testing Agent Cost per Test Mannequin Component Testing (Masks, Boots, Gloves, Filters) Materials Testing (Swatch and Filtrate Materials) FIguRE 1.1 Chemical Agent Testing and Evaluation Pyramid for IPE. SOURCE: Charles Walker, Dugway Proving Ground, U.S. Department of Defense. THE PROTECTION ENSEMbLE TEST MANNEquIN SySTEM fig 1-1 The purpose of developing a PETMAN system is to test the protection capability of IPE against chemical-warfare agents. The PETMAN system R01070 is envisioned as a fully articulated robotic mannequin that will perform exercises that simulate war-fighter activities, that will be heated to produce human body temperatures, and Protective Cl. to perspire and breathe. Soldier that will be able A descriptive overview of the desired features of the PETMAN system

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 INTRODUCTION design is provided in the text that follows. The significant design chal- lenges are provided in Table 1.1, and a detailed list of system requirements is provided in Appendix B. The PETMAN system performance require- ments, however, include both threshold and objective requirements, where TAbLE 1.1 Summary of PETMAN System Significant Design Challenges 3.2.1-3.2.8 (see Appendix B) Design Challenge Threshold Requirement Objective Requirement • • 3.2.1 Tethered Freestanding • • 3.2.2 Compatible with all Compatible with skin exposure individual and ancillary reduction paste against equipment and weapons chemical-warfare agents systems. • Meet 50th percentile male anthropometric measurements • • 3.2.3 Not degraded by exposure Not significantly degraded by to traditional chemical exposure to TICS and TIMS • agents Capable of being • Capable of being decontaminated such that there decontaminated with no is negligible agent residue adverse effects • • 3.2.4 Compatible with current Designed to enable integration under-ensemble chemical with real-time (1 second breakthrough sampling increments) sampling technologies, procedures, technologies, procedures, and and equipment equipment • • At a minimum, sampling Breakthrough measured in locations shall be the same nanograms as those defined in TOP 10-22-022 • • 3.2.5 Fixed skin temperature, Realistic variability in skin and perspiration and temperature, and perspiration respirations rates by body and respiration rates. region • • 3.2.6 Fixed environmental Range of environmental chamber conditions chamber conditions • • 3.2.7 Can perform the Man- Full jumping jacks in-SimulantTest exercises versus all motions (partial jumping jacks) • • 3.2.8 Minimum amount of hand Fully articulated hands and feet and foot articulation that simulate human motion

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 SOLDIER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT a threshold requirement is a “must have” while an objective requirement denotes a “would like to have” operational capability. While PD TESS desires a PETMAN system meeting all the objective-level requirements, a PETMAN system meeting the threshold-level requirements is also an op- tion for PD TESS. Compatibility with Existing Protective Equipment and Weapons Systems: Because the main objective of the PETMAN system is to test IPE, it must be compatible with individual protection and ancillary equipment (listed in Box 1.1), including donning and doffing and proper sizing and fit of the IPE. In particular, the PETMAN system must meet the appropriate 50th percentile male anthropometric measurements, as defined in DOD-HDBK- 743A, Military Handbook Anthropometry of U.S. Military Personnel (13 February 1991), to allow for the necessary fit and seal that each piece of protective equipment requires. The PETMAN system must also be able to hold and aim designated weapon systems (requirement 3.3.10, Appendix B) in accordance with field manual (FM) 3-22.9, the Rifle Marksmanship Field Manual. Mannequin Support: Ideally, the PETMAN system will be free-standing and self-contained. That is, it will have no external support, and all power, fluids, heating, and other components for operation will be contained in- ternally. This could be accomplished with a tethered design with external supports, power requirements, and telemetry connections, but the use of a tether must not compromise the integrity of the IPE equipment being tested with the PETMAN system. If a tethered design is selected, it must not com- promise the whole ensemble operation. Materials of Construction and Decontamination: The PETMAN system should use as many commercially available components as possible. At a minimum, the PETMAN system materials of construction cannot be sig- nificantly degradable by exposure to traditional chemical agents. Ideally, the system will also be resistant to toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and toxic industrial materials (TIMs). It should be possible to decontaminate the system to negligible levels of chemicals without adversely affecting its operation, as defined by the 3X decontamination level in DA PAM 385-61, Toxic Chemical Agent Safety Standards. Operational Time: The PETMAN system ideally will be capable of operat- ing for 24 hours before operational maintenance, for 6 months before pre- ventive maintenance, and for 12 months before calibration. At a minimum, it should be capable of operating for 12 hours before operational main- tenance, for 3 months before preventive maintenance, and for 6 months

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 INTRODUCTION Box 1.1 Individual Protection and Ancillary Equipment, with Which a PETMAN System Should Be Compatible (See Requirement 3.3.9, Appendix B) Suits Helmets Joint Service Lightweight Suit Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) Technology (JSLIST) Type II Personal Armor System Ground JSLIST Type VII Troops (PASGT) Helmet All Purpose-Personal Protective Modular Integrated Communica- Ensemble (AP-PPE) tions Helmet (MICH) Chemical Protective Undergar- Lightweight Helmet ment (CPU) Combat Boots Boots Lightweight Desert Combat Boot Green Vinyl Overboot (GVO) / Jungle Boot Black Vinyl Overboot (BVO) Infantry Combat Boot Multipurpose Overboot (MULO) Temperate and Hot Weather Combat Boot Gloves 7, 14, and 25 mil butyl gloves Ballistic Protection Vests JSLIST Block 1 Gove Upgrade Spall Vest (JB1GU) and JB1GU-Flame Interceptor Vest Retardant (FR) Pistol Holsters Masks M40/42 Series Masks All Services Battle Dress and M45 Mask Combat Uniform M48 Chemical-Biological Apache Aviator Mask All Services Physical Train- Aircrew Eye Respirator Protec- ing Gear (T-shirt, running tion (AERP) shorts, socks) AP-22P Respirator Assembly Skin Exposure Reduc- tion Paste against Chemical Warfare Agents (SERPACWA) before calibration. Operational maintenance is defined as the maintenance procedures required to prepare the PETMAN system for each test trial, for example, filling a perspiration reservoir, changing agent samplers, or decontamination before the next trial. Preventive maintenance is defined as maintenance performed before a failure to prevent its occurrence.

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 SOLDIER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT Sampling: The PETMAN system should be designed to enable integration with real-time (1-second increments) sampling technologies, procedures, and equipment and to record the following system measures over the desired operational time given above: skin temperature, respiration rate, perspiration rate, and total mass (in nanograms) of chemical vapor that penetrates or permeates the protection ensemble. At a minimum, the sys- tem must be compatible with current under-IPE sampling technologies, procedures, and equipment as defined in Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 0--0, Chemical Vapor and Aerosol System-Level Testing of Chemical/ Biological Protective Suits. Human Simulation: The PETMAN system must simulate the following environmental and physiologic conditions under the IPE: • Temperature: Realistic variability in body surface temperature based on body region and level of physical activity and exertion, or at a minimum a fixed skin temperature based on body region. • Perspiration: Realistic variability in perspiration rates (range, 0.11- 1.8 L/h) based on level of physical activity and exertion, or at a minimum a fixed perspiration rate of 0.4 L/h. • Respiration: Realistic variability in respiration rate (range, 10-115 L/min with variable tidal volumes and breath frequencies) based on level of physical activity and exertion, or at a minimum a res- piration rate of 50 L/min (fixed tidal volume of 1.5 L and breath frequency of 33/min). Test-Chamber Conditions: The PETMAN system must be able to operate in the test chamber under various conditions given below. In addition, PD TESS has indicated that the PETMAN system will be required to operate in an agent chamber, which will be 8'×8'×10' (L×W×H). The dimensions of the current MIST chamber, are 10'×12'×8.5' (L×W×H). • Temperature: The ideal temperature test range is –25°F to 125°F ± 1°F, measured every 5 min. At a minimum, the system must oper- ate at 90°F ± 2°F. • Relative humidity: The ideal relative-humidity test range is 0-100% ± 1%, measured every 5 min. At a minimum, the system must oper- ate at 80% ± 3% relative humidity. • Wind speed: The ideal wind-speed test range is 0-161 mph ± 2 mph. At a minimum, the system must operate at 0-10 mph ± 10%. • Pressure: The pressure range is 0.25 ± 2% inches water gauge (iwg) chamber vacuum maintained.

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 INTRODUCTION • The system must be able to operate in the presence of liquid and vapor chemical agents, including all nerve and vesicant agents, and the chemical simulants triethylphosphate and methyl salicylate. Compatibility with Man-in-Simulant Test Exercises: The PETMAN sys- tem must be articulated and robotic so that it can reproduce the Man-in- Simulant Test (MIST) exercises listed below. Figure 1.2 shows a schematic of a MIST chamber, and Figure 1.3 shows MIST exercises being performed in a chamber. The system must also be programmable to perform a series of exercises or motions and be able to track body position during these exercises and motions in 1-s increments. • Standing. • Walking at 4.8 km/h (3 mph). • Marching (12-in. high step) at 4.8 km/h (3 mph). • Jumping jacks: o Ideally, start with feet together and hands at sides. Simultane- ously bring hands together palm to palm over head while jumping and landing with feet shoulder-width apart. Jump, simultaneously bringing feet back together and hands back to sides. FIguRE 1.2 Schematic of a Man-in-Simulant Test chamber. SOURCE: Charles Walker, Dugway Proving Ground, U.S. Department of Defense. 1-2 JPEG

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 SOLDIER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT FIguRE 1.3 Man-in-Simulant Test exercises being performed in a chamber. SOURCE: Charles Walker, Dugway Proving Ground, U.S. Department of Defense. o t a minimum, start with feet together and hands at sides. A Simultaneously move left foot to the side, causing feet to be shoulder-width apart, and bring hands together palm to palm over head. Simultaneously return left foot to starting position (feet together) and hands back to sides. Repeat the exercise with the right foot. • Sitting. • Moving from standing position to squatting position and returning to standing position. • Reaching arms in all directions. • Moving from standing to lying prone and returning to standing. • kneeling on one knee. • kneeling on both knees. • Low crawling: Lie prone. Keep body flat against the ground. With

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 INTRODUCTION firing hand, grasp weapon sling at the upper sling swivel. Let the front handguard rest on forearm (keeping the muzzle off the ground), and let the weapon butt drag on the ground. To move, push arms forward and pull firing-side leg forward. Then pull with arms and push with leg. Continue this throughout the move. • High crawling: Keep body off the ground by resting on forearms and lower legs. Cradle weapon in arms and keep its muzzle off the ground. Keep knees well behind buttocks so body will stay low. To move, alternately advance right elbow and left knee, then left elbow and right knee. • Aiming weapon in various positions: Standing, kneeling on one knee, lying prone (grip rifle, sight rifle, trigger pull associated with small arms). Articulation and Construction: Finally, the PETMAN system should be articulated and robotic so that it looks and moves like a human, including aesthetics, proportions, and how the joints respond to sudden movements. All movements shall simulate realistic human control. The following are the minimal degrees of freedom (DoFs) and considerations for the PETMAN system to mimic human control. Additional DoFs or joints may be used to allow the PETMAN system to mimic human control and don and doff IPE as defined earlier under “Compatibility with Existing Protective Equipment and Weapons Systems.” • upper body: Consists of a head, a neck, a torso, two shoulders, two upper arms, two elbows, two lower arms, and two hands. • Head: Able to both pan and tilt as required. • Neck: Provides at least two DoFs between the torso and the head. This will allow the head to look up and down and from side to side or to pitch and yaw. • Torso: The base component of the upper body. The basic shape of the torso is similar to that of a male human chest. The torso has at least three DoFs: pitch, roll, and yaw. The PETMAN system is able to bend over, tilt from side to side, and swivel with respect to the frontal plane. • Shoulders: Is attached to the torso and allows for at least two DoFs. • upper arm: Is attached at the shoulder and is designed so that it is able to move with at least two DoFs without restriction. • Elbow: Has at least one DoF and provides an attachment between the upper and lower arms. • Lower arm: Extends from the elbow joint and has a hand mecha- nism at its distal end.

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0 SOLDIER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT • Wrist: Is able to move with at least two DoFs for wrist extension, flexion, and abduction. • Hand: Is articulated to study the glove-coat interface or to have an opposable thumb and four fingers. Each finger has at least four DoFs. The distal interphalangeal joint and the proximal interpha- langeal joint each have one DoF. The metacarpophalangeal joint has at least two DoFs due to flexion and abduction. The opposable thumb has at least three DoFs. The thumb has one DoF for the interphalangeal joint. The thumb metacarpophalangeal joint has at least two DoFs due to flexion and abduction. Additional thumb DoFs (an objective goal) will be due to flexion and abduction of the trapeziometacarpal joint. • Lower body: Consists of the waist, two hip joints, two upper legs, two knees, two lower legs, two ankles, and two feet. • Hip joint: Allows the upper leg to move with at least two DoFs. • knee: Moves with at least one DoF. • Ankle: Moves with at least two DoFs and allows the foot to both pitch and roll. • ball of foot: Moves with at least one DoF, providing toe-roll mo- tion while walking. • Joints: Move smoothly and efficiently to mimic human motion. The PETMAN system movement is free of backlash. ExAMPLES OF CuRRENT MILITARy PETMAN-LIkE SySTEMS DOD and its counterparts in other countries have been pursuing the development of a PETMAN-like system for many years. Brief descriptions of the U.K. and Canadian systems based on publicly available information are provided below. Both fall short of meeting PD TESS requirements for PETMAN outlined earlier. First, the systems are not freestanding; they are attached to support systems, which limits the mannequin range of motion and affects compatibility with existing protective equipment and weapons systems. Second, there is no real-time chemical sampling or simulation of human physiology. The articulation and construction of these systems are inadequate for making it look or move like a human. united kingdom System The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory, in Porton Down, United Kingdom has developed an articulated mannequin capable of typical ranges of human movement while wearing protective clothing. The Porton- man mannequin is based on 50th percentile male dimensions as determined from anthropometric surveys of 2,500 U.K. army and 2,500 U.K. naval

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 INTRODUCTION FIguRE 1.4 Portonman mannequin with knapsack sprayer in operation, simulating application of agricultural pesticides. SOURCE: Research Report RR004: Dermal Exposure Resulting from Liquid Con- tamination 2002. ISBN 0717625303. Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of 1-4 HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland. personnel. The mannequin is articulated at the shoulder, elbow, and hip and knee joints; movement of the limbs is in the vertical plane. Movement is achieved through linkages to the hands and feet, which are attached to a motor-driven pulley system that produces a normal or exaggerated march- ing motion. The relative radii of the pulleys govern the extent of limb move- ment. Cycle time is adjustable, although testing is normally conducted at 30 cycles/min, resulting in an equivalent walking speed of 5.4 km/h (3.4 mph), although this value was obtained when only the arms were set in motion.1 Figure 1.4 shows Portonman being used to test for pesticide exposure. Fig- ure 1.5 shows the under-ensemble sampling locations (test points). 1 Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, 2002 Dermal exposure resulting from liquid contamination. Research Report 004 prepared for the Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom, www.hse.gov.uk.

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 SOLDIER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT FIguRE 1.5 Portonman mannequin with sampling tapes mounted before dressing. SOURCE: Research Report RR004: Dermal Exposure Resulting from Liquid Con- tamination 2002. ISBN 0717625303. Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of 1-5 HMSO and Queen’s Printer for Scotland. Canadian System Defense Research and Development Canada Suffield has developed an articulated mannequin system designed and built by Crawley Creatures, U.K. The mannequin weighs 24-27 kg, has a shell made of carbon-fiber

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 INTRODUCTION composite material, and is anthropometrically based on a 50th percentile Canadian military male. Like Portonman, the Canadian mannequin is mounted on a support structure to accomplish human-like movements. It can walk, run, squat and lift, sit (with legs raised to a sitting position), and “creep” (walking in a crouching position). A separate articulated human head form is capable of simulating facial and neck movements of the human head. The mannequin and support structure sit on a revolving platform that is integral to the test chamber. The support structure is electrically and physically connected to the test chamber. The system is computer-controlled and programmable, and a data-acquisition system records time-stamped mannequin-movement data. ORgANIZATION OF THIS REPORT In chapters 2 through 6, the key design challenges associated with developing a PETMAN system are considered in detail: human-physiology simulation, chemical-agent sensing, robot design, skin materials, and system integration. Chapters 2 through 5 include a discussion of current capabili- ties, feasibility, and design challenges associated with the PETMAN-system requirements and how they might be addressed, risk-benefit and cost-ben- efit analyses of requirements and trad-eoffs, and potential alternatives. A complementary approach to developing a PETMAN system is presented in Chapter 7, and overarching conclusions and recommendations are provided in Chapter 8. Scope of Report The presentation of technologies in this report is not comprehensive. The study task was to determine feasibility of the PETMAN requirements, not actually design the PETMAN system. In light of this task, some poten- tial technologies and the thought process needed for considering and incor- porating such technologies into a PETMAN system are presented. Anyone considering creating a PETMAN system will have to carry out a more thorough survey to determine the most appropriate technologies to use. In addition, the rationale behind all the PETMAN requirements is not critically evaluated in this report, because the DOD sponsors indicated that a concurrent exercise was being carried out to set priorities among the re- quirements. However, the results of that exercise were not available in time to inform the PETMAN feasibility study. Questions did arise during the study about the need to test chemical agents rather than simulants. DOD explained that it needs to recreate an authentic war-fighter environment— which would be important for demonstrating test capability to soldiers.

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