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G Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE MEMBERS Steven C. Cowley, Co-chair, earned his Ph.D. from the Department of Astrophysical Sciences at Princeton University in 1985. Following his graduation he served as a lecturer at Corpus Christi College at Oxford University and as a senior scientific of- ficer at the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (Culham Laboratory). He then returned to the United States to work at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and later accepted a professorship at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Since 2001, Dr. Cowley has also been a professor at Imperial College London at the Blackett Laboratory. His research interests at Imperial include fusion theory; plasma and atomic theory associated with x-ray laser development; space and astro- physical plasmas; and multiphoton processes. Dr. Cowley served in 1997 on the Fu- sion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) physics review panel. He has served as a member of the organizing committee for the annual Sherwood Fusion Theory meeting and as chair of the NRC Plasma Science Committee (1999-2001). Dr. Cowley was also a member of the NRC Physics Survey Overview Committee, which produced the overview volume for the Physics in a New Era decadal physics survey and was a member of the NRC’s Burning Plasma Assessment Committee. Dr. Cowley is a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and the Institute of Physics (IOP), the recipient of a number of awards for excellence in teaching at UCLA, and the recipient of a number of fellowships, including the Harkness Fellowship and the Charlotte Elizabeth Proctor Fellowship. 24

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aPPendix g 2 John Peoples, Jr., Co-chair, is director emeritus of Fermilab and a member of the Fermilab Particle Astrophysics Center. Currently, he is project director of the Dark Energy Survey, an astrophysics project that plans to measure the dark energy and dark matter content of the universe. He received his Ph.D. in physics in 1966 from Columbia University. Subsequently he served on the faculties of Columbia Uni- versity and Cornell University. He joined the Fermilab staff in 1972 and during the next 17 years served in a succession of management positions. During that time he led the construction and commissioning of the Fermilab Antiproton Source, which completed the transition of the Tevatron into an antiproton-proton collider. He was appointed director in 1989 and director emeritus in 1999. Between 1998 and 2003 he served as director of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He is a fellow of the APS and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He served on the executive committee of the APS Division of Particles and Fields and was its chair in 1984. He served on the executive committee of the APS Division of Physics of Beams and was its chair in 1999. He was a member of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel from 1976 until 1980 and again from 1984 through 1985. He was a member of the International Committee for Future Accelerators from 1990 to 1997 and served as chair from 1993 until 1997. He served on the NRC Committee on the Physics of the Universe that produced Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos. He received the Distinguished Associate Award in 1995 from the Secretary of En- ergy for his work as director of Fermilab and he received the Distinguished Service Award from the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1999. James D. Callen, a fusion plasma theoretician, is D.W. Kerst Professor Emeritus of Engineering Physics and Physics at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. He received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1968 in the applied plasma physics option of nuclear engineering, on Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and NSF fellowships. Subsequently, he held an NSF postdoctoral fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, taught at MIT (1969-1972), did research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, where he was head of the Fusion Theory Section (1975-1979), and then moved to the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UW-Madison) in 1979. He has taken sabbaticals at the Joint European Torus fusion laboratory near Abingdon, England, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Dr. Callen established UW-Madison’s Center for Plasma Theory and Computation in 1988 and directed it until 2005. His research interests are in developing and applying plasma theory and computation to present plasma confinement experiments, and fusion reactor design studies. He has served on and chaired a large number of Department of Energy (DOE) fusion review panels. For example, he established the fusion-community-wide Transport Task Force in 1988 and led it for its first 3 years. Also, he chaired the Scientific Issues Subcommittee

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Plasma science 2 of the DOE’s FESAC, whose work and recommendations provided the technical justification and impetus for the 1996 major restructuring of the fusion program to focus on science. His honors include a Guggenheim Fellowship, a DOE Distin- guished Associate Award, a Fusion Power Associates Distinguished Career Award, and a UW-Madison Vilas Associate Award and Byron Bird Award for a research publication. He is a past chair (1986) of the Division of Plasma Physics of the APS and a fellow of the APS and the American Nuclear Society. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in 1990 for his pioneering work in the development of models of neutral beam heating, tokamak discharge macroscop- ics, and anomalous (turbulent) transport in plasmas. Dr. Callen remains active in fusion research and is a principal and co-principal investigator on grants from the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Franklin R. Chang-Díaz is founder and current chairman and CEO of Ad Astra Rocket Company, a Houston firm developing advanced plasma rocket technol- ogy. In 2005 Dr. Chang-Díaz completed a 25-year career as a NASA astronaut, during which he became a veteran of seven space missions. He has logged over 1,600 hours in space, including 19 hours in space walks. In 1994, in conjunction with his astronaut training at NASA, he founded and directed the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) at the Johnson Space Center, where he managed a multicenter research team developing advanced plasma rocket propulsion concepts. Dr. Chang-Díaz is the inventor and principal developer of the VASIMR engine, a high-power plasma rocket currently under development for in-space applications. He has over 30 years of experience in experimental plasma physics, engineering and high-power electric propulsion and 25 years of experience in the management and implementation of research and development programs at NASA. Dr. Chang- Díaz holds a Ph.D. in applied plasma physics from MIT and a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Connecticut. Prior to his work at NASA, Dr. Chang-Díaz was involved in magnetic and inertial confinement fusion research at MIT and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. He is an adjunct professor of physics at Rice University and the University of Houston. Todd Ditmire is a professor of physics at the University of Texas at Austin and the director of the Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science. His research inter- ests include experimental study of ultrafast high-intensity laser interactions with atoms, molecular clusters, and plasmas. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of California at Davis in 1995. He is chair of the Optical Physics section of the Optical Society of America and was a scientific delegate representative for DOE to the OECD Global Science Forum on ultrafast high-field science. William Dorland is associate professor of physics at the University of Maryland at College Park. Dr. Dorland received his Ph.D. in astrophysical sciences from

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aPPendix g 2 Princeton in 1993. After working at the Institute for Fusion Studies in Austin for 4 years, he moved to Maryland in 1998. His research interest is in understanding the properties of matter at very high temperatures and the generic properties of tur- bulence in magnetized plasma. His principle tools are large-scale numerical codes. He is especially interested in calculating turbulence-induced heating and transport in laboratory and astrophysical systems. He has published extensively on turbulent transport in magnetic confinement fusion experiments. More recently, he has been working on understanding the energetics of accretion flows. He has a strong interest in developing new numerical algorithms to simulate plasma turbulence, which is generally characterized by very disparate time and space scales. Walter gekelman is a professor of physics in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), where he has been since 1974. He has been a member of the NRC Plasma Science Committee and served on the NRC Burning Plasma Assessment Committee. He is also a fel- low of the APS. He received a B.S. in physics from Brooklyn College in 1966 and a Ph.D. in experimental plasma physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in 1972. His research interests include exploring under controlled laboratory conditions fundamental plasma processes that play a major role in the behavior of naturally occurring plasmas. These include the auroral ionosphere, the magnetosphere, the solar wind, the solar corona, and the interstellar medium. Dr. Gekelman operates the Large Plasma Device at UCLA, a unique user facility dedicated to the experi- mental study of a broad range of plasma phenomena. At UCLA, Dr. Gekelman has developed three different plasma devices, each becoming progressively larger and more sophisticated technologically to solve problems at the frontier of basic plasma research. Steven L. girshick is professor of mechanical engineering and a graduate faculty member in chemical engineering and materials science, University of Minnesota. He is the editor of Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing. He was the recipient of the 2005 Plasma Chemistry Award of the International Plasma Chemistry So- ciety, which he served as president from 2000 to 2003. Research interests include plasmas, plasma synthesis of nanoparticles and thin films, and nucleation theory. Current projects include plasma synthesis of superhard nanoparticle coatings, thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition of thin films, and particle nucleation in low-pressure plasmas. The types of plasmas of interest to Dr. Girshick range from atmospheric-pressure thermal plasmas to low-pressure nonequilibrium plasmas. He is particularly interested in the nucleation, growth, and transport of nanopar- ticles in plasmas. David Hammer is the J. Carlton Ward Professor of Nuclear Energy Engineering and professor of electrical and computer engineering at Cornell University. Dr.

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Plasma science 2 Hammer worked at the Naval Research Laboratory in 1969-1976, was a visiting associate professor (part time) at the University of Maryland in 1973-1976, and was an associate professor at UCLA in 1977; in 1983-1984, 1991, and 2004, he was a visiting senior fellow at Imperial College, London. He has been a consultant to several corporations and government laboratories. Dr. Hammer has authored or coauthored more than 110 articles that have appeared in refereed journals and about 60 that have been published in refereed conference proceedings. He also holds three patents. His research is supported by the DOE Office of Fusion En- ergy Science, by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and by Sandia National Laboratories. Dr. Hammer is a fellow of the APS, a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and a fellow of the AAAS. He has held several offices in the Division of Plasma Physics (DPP) of the APS, including chair of the DPP in 2004, and he is presently the DPP’s representative to the APS Council. His current research interests and activities center on studies of pulsed-power-driven high energy density (HED) plasmas and their applications, with emphasis on wire-array z-pinches, and on plasma measurements by optical techniques. Erich P. Ippen is the Elihu Thomson Professor of Electrical Engineering and a professor of physics at MIT. He is also principal investigator of the optics and quantum electronics group at the MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics. He has made seminal contributions to nonlinear optics in guided media and to ultrashort laser pulse generation. Dr. Ippen discovered low-power stimulated scattering in the optical fibers used in light-wave communications and pioneered the field of femto- second optics by generating the first pulses shorter than a picosecond and applying them to studies of ultrafast phenomena in materials and devices. His research and technical interests lie in the field of optics, with particular focus on femtosecond science and ultra-high-speed communications. Dr. Ippen is a member of the Board on Physics and Astronomy and has been involved in numerous National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and NRC activities. He is a member of the NAS and the NAE. Mark J. Kushner is dean of the College of Engineering at Iowa State University. He received a Ph.D. in applied physics from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). His undergraduate degrees are in astronomy and nuclear engineering. He previously served on the technical staffs of Sandia National Laboratories, Law- rence Livermore National Laboratory, and Spectra Technology and on the faculty at the University of Illinois. His research interests include low-temperature plas- mas, plasma materials processing, lasers, lighting plasmas, pulsed-power plasmas, and thin films. He consults for a number of laboratories and businesses. He is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Technical Excellence Award from the Semiconductor Research Corporation. He is a fellow of the Optical Society of

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aPPendix g 2 America, the APS, the IOP, and the IEEE. Dr. Kushner has served on many NRC committees. Kristina A. Lynch is an associate professor of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth College. Her research interests include auroral space plasma physics; ionospheric and mesospheric sounding rocket experiments; instrumentation and data analysis; and wave–particle interactions in the auroral ionosphere. Dr. Lynch leads the Lynch Rocket Lab at Dartmouth, where her team studies the structure and dynamics of auroral acceleration. Their work involves utilizing sounding rocket missions to look at variations in auroral precipitation; studying the FAST auroral satellite data set, which allows statistical investigations of the auroral processes; and developing a large calibration/plasma vacuum chamber for characterizing particle detector responses to the auroral plasma. She received her Ph.D. in 1992 from the University of New Hampshire. Jonathan E. Menard, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), received the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers in 2004. He is an ex- perimental plasma physicist who works primarily on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at PPPL. Dr. Menard’s research interests include the linear and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability properties of spherical torus (ST) plasmas, advanced operating scenarios in the ST, plasma startup, and wave physics. After receiving a bachelor’s degree in nuclear engineering from UW- Madison in 1992, Dr. Menard went on to receive a master’s degree in 1994 and a Ph.D. in 1998 from Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences. He conducted postdoctoral research at PPPL before joining the research staff in 1999. Among his honors, Dr. Menard was a recipient of the Kaul Prize in 2006, received the “Best Student Paper” award from the American Nuclear Society Fusion Energy Division in 1998, the Princeton University Honorific Fellowship in 1996, and the DOE Magnetic Fusion Science Fellowship in 1993. The PPPL is funded by the DOE and managed by Princeton University. Lia Merminga is director of the Center for Advanced Studies of Accelerators at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. She received her B.S. in physics from the University of Athens, Greece, in 1983, and then attended the University of Michigan, where she received her Ph.D. in physics in 1989. She worked at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center from 1989 to 1992 prior to joining the Accelera- tor Division at the Jefferson Lab as a staff scientist. Her research interests include advanced accelerator systems and nonlinear dynamics, with a recent focus on the design and development of energy recovery radio-frequency linear accelerators and their applications to high-power, free-electron lasers, synchrotron radiation sources, and electron-ion colliders for nuclear and particle physics. In 2005 she co-

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Plasma science 20 chaired the first international Workshop on Energy Recovery Linacs. She has taught courses at the U.S. Particle Accelerator School and is currently serving on several machine advisory committees, as well as on the editorial board for Physical Review Special Topics—Accelerators and Beams. Dr. Merminga is a fellow of the APS. Eliot Quataert is associate professor of astronomy at the University of California at Berkeley and is the director of Berkeley’s Theoretical Astrophysics Center. He is also a member of the Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics, a DOE-funded science center. His primary research interests include studies of compact objects, high-energy astrophysics, and galaxies. Dr. Quataert earned his Ph.D. in astronomy from Harvard University in 1999 and was a postdoctoral fellow in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study for 2 years before going to Berkeley. He has received the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship and a Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering. Timothy J. Sommerer is a physicist at General Electric’s Research Center in Niskayuna, New York. His research interests are the simulation and application of low-temperature plasmas, particularly where it is necessary to integrate scientific disciplines ranging from the electronic structure of atoms and molecules to chemi- cal kinetics and the properties of both inorganic and organic materials. For the past 8 years he has led various interdisciplinary global research teams. He served on the executive committee of the APS Gaseous Electronics Conference for 7 years, including a 4-year rotation at its chair. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1990, has authored 21 journal papers, and has been awarded four U.S. patents. Clifford M. Surko, University of California at San Diego, is developing techniques to accumulate, store, and manipulate large numbers of positrons and to make state-of-the-art cold positron beams a reality—in essence, to make low-energy antimatter in the laboratory. His group is also interested in using these collections of antimatter to study a number of scientific topics. He conducted the first study of electron-positron plasmas and a number of precision studies of the interaction of positrons with atoms and molecules. The positron traps that he developed are now used in a variety of applications, including positron-atomic physics and the formation of cold antihydrogen. Dr. Surko’s previous research includes studies of waves and turbulence in tokamak plasmas using novel laser scattering techniques that he and his colleagues developed. Dr. Surko served on the NRC Burning Plasma Assessment Committee and was co-chair of the NRC Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology, which prepared the last decadal survey.

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aPPendix g 21 Max Tabak is associate program leader for HED physics target design in the Fu- sion Energy Program, Physics and Advanced Technologies, at Lawrence Liver- more National Laboratory (LLNL). His research interests include inertial fusion, hydrodynamics, fast ignition, transport of intense particle beams, HED physics, and radiation transport. Dr. Tabak’s current research centers on designing proof- of-principle, fast-ignition experiments for the OMEGA/EP and NIF lasers. He re- ceived a B.S. in physics from MIT in 1970 and a Ph.D. in experimental elementary particle physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1975 studying meson resonances. He is the associate editor for inertial fusion for Nuclear Fusion. He is a fellow of the APS and a 2006 recipient of its Excellence in Plasma Physics Award. Dr. Tabak was a 2005 recipient of the Edward Teller medal of the American Nuclear Society and is currently a Teller Fellow at the LLNL. NRC STAFF Donald C. Shapero received a B.S. from MIT in 1964 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1970. His thesis addressed the asymptotic behavior of relativistic quantum field theories. After receiving the Ph.D., he became a Thomas J. Watson postdoctoral fellow at IBM. He subsequently became an assistant professor at American Univer- sity, later moving to Catholic University and then joining the staff of the National Research Council in 1975. Dr. Shapero took a leave of absence from the NRC in 1978 to serve as the first executive director of the Energy Research Advisory Board at the Department of Energy. He returned to the NRC in 1979 to serve as special assistant to the president of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1982, he started the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA). As BPA director, he has played a key role in many NRC studies, including the two most recent surveys of physics and the two most recent surveys of astronomy and astrophysics. He is a member of the APS, the American Astronomical Society, the AAAS, and the International Astronomical Union. He has published research articles in refereed journals in high-energy physics, condensed-matter physics, and environmental science. Timothy I. Meyer is a senior program officer at the NRC’s Board on Physics and Astronomy. He received a Notable Achievement Award from the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences in 2003 and a Distinguished Service Award from the National Academies in 2004. Dr. Meyer joined the NRC staff in 2002 after earning his Ph.D. in experimental particle physics from Stanford University. His doctoral thesis concerned the time evolution of the B-meson in the BaBar experi- ment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. His work also focused on radiation monitoring and protection of silicon-based particle detectors. During his time at Stanford, Dr. Meyer received both the Paul Kirkpatrick and the Centennial Teaching

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Plasma science 22 awards for his work as an instructor of undergraduates. He is a member of the APS, the AAAS, the Materials Research Society, and Phi Beta Kappa. Michael H. Moloney is a senior program officer at the NRC’s National Materials Advisory Board. A materials physicist, Dr. Moloney did his Ph.D. work at Trinity College, Dublin, and received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College, Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics. Dr. Moloney has served as a study director for various activities at the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design (BMED), and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies (CEGIS). Associated reports include Controlling the Quantum World: The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Pho- tons; Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos; Funding Smithsonian Scientific Research; Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics; Burning Plasma: Bringing a Star to Earth; Globalization of Materials R&D; A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative; and Analyzing the U.S. Content of Imports and the For- eign Content of Exports. In addition to his professional experience at the National Academies, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years experience as a foreign service of- ficer for the Irish government and served at the Irish embassy in Washington, the Irish mission to the United Nations in New York, and the Department of Foreign Affairs in Dublin in that capacity.