implementation of protection systems against biological and chemical airborne threats for new and existing DOD buildings.


The committee was charged to address the following issues:

  • What metrics of performance are relevant to evaluate existing studies and to use existing facilities as effective test beds for validating tools, testing systems, and facilitating system technology transfer? Where a metric is not relevant to all situations, identify and discuss its appropriate application. Discuss situational use of a combination of all relevant metrics where appropriate.

  • What terms and definitions are required—for example, Tier 1 detector, trigger, high-impact response, confirmatory test, and so forth—to allow communication and comparison among programs?

  • Consider the current protocols and setup of existing systems in use, including both DOD and non-DOD efforts. What are the general features of existing test bed facilities? Are there significant features in common? Do existing facilities differ in significant ways, and how can these differences be exploited to forward our understanding of building protection?

  • What collective principles can be derived from current building protection efforts? How can information gained from a test bed facility be extrapolated to operational buildings with completely different designs?

  • What is the cost-benefit of internal building monitoring? Suggest a tiered approach with varying levels of detection and protection capability, comparing the relative cost-benefit among the tiers. Perform this assessment for both new building construction and building retrofit, and correlate to an appropriate metric (lives saved or fraction of the building exposed).

  • Compare and discuss the relative risks of the possible tiers in a tiered approach to chemical and biological protection efforts, from a baseline of no protection efforts up to and including a fully protected building. Consider risks associated with building retrofitting, extrapolating test data to buildings differing from test bed buildings, possible system degradation over time, et cetera.

An evaluation of the performance of building protection technologies or existing protection systems and test beds was not the intent of the study. Rather, it aims to provide DTRA guidance on investment, design, and implementation of building protection. The scope of this study is limited to airborne biological and chemical threat agents, even though explosives and radiological threat agents could be used in terrorist attacks as well. Although the goal is to protect occupants and operations within a building, biological and chemical airborne threats inside or outside a building could affect the occupants and activities within. Therefore, this report covers both inside and outside releases that might affect building oc-

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