1996 she has been a member of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program, responsible for advising the respective governments (U.S. State Department/Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs) on joint research agendas. She has served on several editorial boards of scientific journals and has authored more than 250 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research in infectious diseases. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and is currently serving a 3-year term on the IOM Council, the institution’s governing board. Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in the formulation of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. For 9 years she was chair of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; she has served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and has been an invited participant in numerous congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served two terms on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), the accrediting body for U.S. medical schools, as well as other national committees involved in establishing policies on training in the biomedical sciences. She recently completed a term on the Leadership Council of the School of Public Health of Harvard University. Currently she is a member of the Executive Committee of the Board of Visitors of Columbia University School of Medicine, the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research!America, and the Advisory Council of the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing.

R. ALTA CHARO (Member, IOM Drug Safety Committee) is Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics, University of Wisconsin at Madison, where she is on the faculty of the Law School and the Medical School’s Department of Medical History and Bioethics. She also serves on the faculty of the university’s Masters in Biotechnology Studies program and lectures in the Master of Public Health program of the Department of Population Health Sciences. She received her BA in biology from Harvard University in 1979 and JD from Columbia University School of Law in 1982. She has been elected to membership in the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters and the IOM. Ms. Charo serves on the expert advisory boards of several organizations with an interest in stem cell research, including CuresNow, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the International Society for Stem Cell Research, and WiCell, as well as on the advisory board of the Wisconsin Stem Cell Research Program. In 2005 she was appointed to the ethics standards working group of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. Also in 2005, she

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