Toxicogenomics – The study of how genomes respond to environmental stressors or toxicants. Combines genomewide mRNA expression profiling with protein expression patterns using bioinformatics to understand the role of gene-environment interactions in disease and dysfunction.

Toxicology – The study of the harmful effects of substances on living organisms.

Transparency – The clarity and completeness with which data, assumptions and methods of analysis are documented.

Variability – Observed differences attributable to true heterogeneity or diversity and the result of natural random processes—usually not reducible by further measurement or study (although it can be better characterized).

Water Quality Criteria – Levels of water quality expected to render a water body suitable for its designated use. Criteria are based on specific levels of pollutants that would make the water harmful if used for drinking, swimming, fish production, or industrial uses.

Water Quality Standards – Ambient standards for water bodies adopted by a state and approved by EPA that prescribe the use of the water body and establish the water quality criteria that must be met to protect designated uses. Water quality standards may apply to dissolved oxygen, heavy metals, pH, and other water constituents.



EPA at

Human Genome Project at; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry at

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement