industrial sectors, prices, international trade, interest rates, and financial flows.

  • Human consumption of resources, such as gasoline or feed, may be translated into pollutant releases, such as nitrogen oxides or nutrients. Human food consumption is also used to estimate exposure to pollutants such as pesticides. Resource consumption in dollar terms may be used to assess economic impacts.

  • Distribution and characteristics of land use are used to assess habitat, impacts on the hydro-geologic cycle and runoff, and biogenic pollutant releases.

Human Activity Models

Model

Type

Use

Additional Information

TRANSCAD, TRANPLAN, MinUTP

Travel demand forecasting models

Develops estimations of motor vehicle miles traveled for use in estimating vehicle emissions. Can be combined with geographic information systems (GIS) for providing spatial and temporal distribution of motor vehicle activity.

Caliper Corporation 2007

DRI

Forecasts national economic indicators

Model can forecast over 1,200 economic concepts including aggregate supply, demand, prices, incomes, international trade, interest rates, etc. The eight sectors of the model are: domestic spending, domestic income, tax sector, prices, financial, international trade, expectations, and aggregate supply.

EIA 1993

E-GAS

National and regional economic activity model

Emissions growth factors for various sector for estimating volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide emissions.

Young et al. 1994

YIELD

Crop-growth yield model

Predicts temporal and spatial crop yield.

Hayes et al. 1982

NATURAL SYSTEMS PROCESS AND EMISSIONS MODELS

Natural systems process and emissions models simulate the dyna-



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