COAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

TO SUPPORT NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY

Committee on Coal Research, Technology, and Resource Assessments to Inform Energy Policy

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy COAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY Committee on Coal Research, Technology, and Resource Assessments to Inform Energy Policy Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. government. Supported by the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Department of the Interior, under Award No. CT5-06401. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-11022-8 (Book) International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-11022-X (Book) International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-11023-5 (PDF) International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-11023-8 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 200793585 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet http://www.nap.edu Cover: Cover design by Michele de la Menardiere; upper image courtesy of Timothy J. Rohrbacher, USGS; lower image courtesy CONSOL Energy Inc. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy COMMITTEE ON COAL RESEARCH, TECHNOLOGY, AND RESOURCE ASSESSMENTS TO INFORM ENERGY POLICY CORALE L. BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado FRANCIS P. BURKE, CONSOL Energy Inc. (retired), South Park, Pennsylvania JAMES C. COBB, University of Kentucky, Lexington ROBERT B. FINKELMAN, University of Texas at Dallas WILLIAM FULKERSON, Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, University of Tennessee, Knoxville HAROLD J. GLUSKOTER, U.S. Geological Survey (emeritus), McLean, Virginia MICHAEL E. KARMIS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg KLAUS S. LACKNER, Columbia University, New York REGINALD E. MITCHELL, Stanford University, California RAJA V. RAMANI, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEAN-MICHEL M. RENDU, Mining Consultant, Englewood, Colorado EDWARD S. RUBIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SAMUEL A. WOLFE, New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, Newark National Research Council Staff DAVID A. FEARY, Study Director TANYA PILZAK, Research Associate (until December 2005) CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Research Associate (January-March 2006) KRISTEN B. DALY, Research Associate (March-July 2006) SANDI SCHWARTZ, Project Researcher (from August 2006) JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial and Administrative Associate JAMES DAVIS, Senior Project Assistant (until December 2005) AMANDA M. ROBERTS, Senior Project Assistant (January-August 2006) NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Senior Project Assistant (from August 2006)

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy COMMITTEE ON EARTH RESOURCES MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Chair, Colorado School of Mines, Golden FRANCIS P. BURKE, CONSOL Energy Inc. (retired), South Park, Pennsylvania WILLIAM S. CONDIT, Independent Consultant, Santa Fe, New Mexico MICHAEL DOGGETT, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada THOMAS V. FALKIE, Berwind Natural Resources Corporation (retired), Newtown Square, Pennsylvania PATRICIA M. HALL, BP America Inc., Houston, Texas DAVID D. LAURISKI, Safety Solutions International, LLC, Parker, Colorado ANN S. MAEST, Stratus Consulting, Boulder, Colorado LELAND L. MINK, U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Program (retired), Worley, Idaho REGINAL SPILLER, Frontera Resources Corporation, Houston, Texas SAMUEL J. TRAINA, University of California, Merced HAROLD J. VINEGAR, Shell Exploration and Production Company, Houston, Texas National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Senior Program Assistant

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville GREGORY B. BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park STEVEN R. BOHLEN, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Washington, D.C. KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID COWEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley ROGER M. DOWNS, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara KATHERINE H. FREEMAN, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park RHEA L. GRAHAM, Pueblo of Sandia, Bernalillo, New Mexico RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden LOUISE H. KELLOGG, University of California, Davis V. RAMA MURTHY, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis CLAYTON NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Sandpoint RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada BARBARA A. ROMANOWICZ, University of California, Berkeley JOAQUIN RUIZ, University of Arizona, Tucson MARK SCHAEFER, Global Environment and Technology Foundation, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM W. SHILTS, Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign RUSSELL STANDS-OVER-BULL, BP American Production Company, Houston, Texas TERRY C. WALLACE, JR., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico THOMAS J. WILBANKS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R. DE SOUZA, Director PAUL M. CUTLER, Senior Program Officer ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Program Officer DAVID A. FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer ANN G. FRAZIER, Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Program Officer CAETLIN M. OFIESH, Associate Program Officer RONALD F. ABLER, Senior Scholar JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial and Administrative Associate VERNA J. BOWEN, Financial and Administrative Associate JARED P. ENO, Research Associate NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Research Associate TONYA E. FONG YEE, Program Assistant

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy Preface The extraordinarily broad scope of the congressional request for advice on coal resources and future coal research and development needs provided a significant challenge for the committee appointed by the National Research Council (NRC). Fortunately, clarifications by staff members from the offices of U.S. Senators Robert C. Byrd and Arlen Specter—the originators of this study—were most helpful, suggesting that the report should be brief and contain limited detail, but with abundant references to other, more comprehensive studies. They also emphasized that a major element of their request was to learn of any potential roadblocks that might impinge on the production or delivery of coal should the nation’s energy requirements dictate that a substantial increase in coal use was needed. The task for the committee was made easier by the many experts in all aspects of the coal life cycle who freely gave up their time to make presentations in open session. These presentations formed the basis for the committee’s deliberations as it fashioned the findings and recommendations. The committee’s task was also facilitated by the cooperation of the interagency liaison group, established and coordinated by the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), which provided input to the committee at its public meetings and responded to specific questions. I am truly indebted to the committee members, all of whom remained completely engaged in the entire process from start to finish. All gave generously of their expertise, time, and energy, and provided wit and cheerfulness when they were sorely needed. Collectively, they performed as a skillful team with dedication and determination. On behalf of the committee I thank the NRC staff: David Feary, whose input and guidance was indispensable in producing a focused and

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy lucid report; Anthony de Souza, Tanya Pilzak, Caetlin Ofiesh, Kristen Daly, and Sandi Schwartz, who assisted with broad guidance and background information; and James Davis, Amanda Roberts, and Nicholas Rogers, who made sure the committee process proceeded efficiently and effectively. Corale L. Brierley Chair

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by input from the many participants at the public committee meetings held as part of this study—Mike Adamczyk, Carl O. Bauer, Peter J. Bethell, Perry Bissell, Paul Bollinger, Richard Bonskowski, Wanda Burget, Gregory E. Conrad, John Craynon, Rob Donovan, Tom Dower, Mike Eastman, Nick Fedorko, Sara Flitner, Bradford Frisby, Ari Geertsema, Steve Gigliotti, Thomas J. Grahame, Güner Gürtunca, David Hawkins, Peter Holman, Connie Holmes, Mike Hood, James R. Katzer, Larry Kellerman, Julianne M. Klara, Mo Klefeker, Jeffrey L. Kohler, John Langton, John A. Lewis, Alexander Livnat, James Luppens, Gerald H. Luttrell, Maria M. Mitchell, John Moran, M. Granger Morgan, Mike Mosser, John Novak, Karen Obenshain, Bruce Peterson, Brenda S. Pierce, Jacek Podkanski, Craig Rockey, Timothy Rohrbacher, Scott Sitzer, Neil Stiber, Eugene Trisko, Ted Venners, Kimery Vories, Franz Wuerfmannsdobler, and Ben Yamagata. These presentations and the ensuing discussions helped set the stage for the committee’s fruitful discussions in the sessions that followed. We also gratefully acknowledge the people who facilitated our committee meetings, the company personnel who briefed the committee on mine operations and led the committee on mine and plant tours, and the experts who supplied information in response to specific enquiries by the committee—David Aloia, Gene D. Berry, Joe Cerenzia, Becki Dale, Mark Davies, James Dooley, Bob Green, Mark Kamlet, Gary G. Loop, James Manual, Claudia L. Miller, Phillip H. Nicks, Jack C. Pashin, Mark Payne, Joe Vaccari, Marshall Wise, and Connie Zaremsky. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Heinz H. Damberger, Illinois State Geological Survey (retired), Boulder, Colorado Mark Davies, Rio Tinto Energy America, Gillette, Wyoming Thomas V. Falkie, Berwind Natural Resources Corporation (retired), Newtown Square, Pennsylvania Barbara A. Filas, Knight Piesold and Company, Denver, Colorado Paul E. Gray, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge R. Larry Grayson, School of Mining and Metallurgy, University of Missouri, Rolla Howard J. Herzog, Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge John N. Murphy, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Dianne R. Nielson, Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City Lee Saperstein, School of Mines and Metallurgy, University of MissouriRolla (retired), Nantucket, Massachusetts Stanley C. Suboleski, Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (retired), Midlothian, Virginia Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William G. Agnew, General Motors Corporation (retired), Corrales, New Mexico, and William L. Fisher, Jackson School of Geosciences, the University of Texas, Austin. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   13      Coal in the U.S. Energy Economy,   15      Committee Charge and Scope of This Study,   19      Committee Process,   19      Report Organization—The Coal Fuel Cycle,   21 2   PROJECTIONS FOR U.S. AND WORLD COAL USE   24      Coal Production Scenarios for the United States,   24      International Coal Production Projections,   32      How Well Do Models Predict Reality?   39      Findings—Projections for Future Coal Production and Use,   40 3   COAL RESOURCE, RESERVE, AND QUALITY ASSESSMENTS   43      Resource and Reserve Definitions,   44      Sources of Coal Resource and Reserve Information,   46      U.S. Coal Resource and Reserve Estimates,   50      International Coal Resource Assessments,   53      Findings and Recommendation—Coal Resource, Reserve, and Quality Assessments,   54 4   COAL MINING AND PROCESSING   57      Coal Mining Industry in the United States,   57      Coal Mining and Processing Methods,   59

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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy      Major Coal Mining and Processing Issues,   66      Coal Mining and Processing R&D Programs,   71      Findings and Recommendations—Coal Mining and Processing,   75 5   TRANSPORT OF COAL AND COAL PRODUCTS   80      Transportation by Rail,   81      Transportation by Truck,   84      Waterborne Coal Transportation,   84      Transportation of Coal Exports and Imports,   86      Electricity Transmission,   86      Transport of Coal-Derived Products,   88      Findings—Transport of Coal and Coal Products,   89 6   COAL UTILIZATION   91      Coal Utilization Technologies,   91      Environmental Impacts of Coal Use,   96      Federal Coal Utilization R&D Programs,   101      Findings and Recommendation—Coal Utilization,   106 7   COAL RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES   108      Societal Issues and Coal,   110      Existing Federal Support for Coal-Related R&D,   112      Improved Coal Resource, Reserve, and Quality Assessments,   116      Research to Support Coal Mining and Processing,   118      Transport of Coal and Coal Products,   121      Research to Support Coal Utilization,   122      Coordination of Coal-Related R&D by Federal Agencies,   123     REFERENCES   128     APPENDIXES          A  Committee and Staff Biographies   139      B  Presentations to the Committee   145      C  Federal Support for Coal Research   148      D  Data Tables: U.S. and World Coal Reserves   155      E  Coal Mining and Processing Methods   160      F  Acronyms and Abbreviations   167      G  Unit Conversion Factors and Energy Ratings   170