research, applied science, pilot-scale testing, technical support, applied engineering projects, and demonstration projects. Funding estimates were requested for the 1995, 2000, and 2005 fiscal years, so that funding trends might be discerned. The data were analyzed by the committee, and the committee’s interpretations of the data were sent back to agency staff for confirmation before being included in this analysis.
The Energy Information Administration2 (EIA), created in 1977, is a policy-independent statistical agency within DOE. It provides data, forecasts, and analyses to support energy policy and public understanding of energy trends. By mandate, EIA neither formulates nor advocates any particular policy conclusions. EIA tracks coal prices, production, reserves, distribution, consumption, stocks, imports, and exports nationally and internationally, and issues a broad range of weekly, monthly, and annual reports on energy production, stocks, demand, imports, exports, and prices. It also prepares analyses and special reports on topics of current interest that are widely used by federal and state agencies, industry, media, researchers, consumers, and educators. In 2005, EIA received only 0.07 percent of overall federal coal R&D funding. EIA’s coal-related budget, in constant 2005 dollars, decreased by 77 percent between 1995 and 2005.
The Office of Fossil Energy3 (FE) has the primary mission to ensure that the country continues to rely on clean, affordable energy from traditional fuel resources, including coal. FE is responsible for implementing two major coal-related research programs, the 10-year, $2 billion Clean Coal Power Initiative to develop a new generation of environmentally benign clean coal technologies, and the FutureGen Initiative, a $950 million coal-fueled prototype plant that will coproduce electricity and hydrogen while minimizing the release of air pollutants and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Other coal R&D programs include pollution control innovations for traditional power plants (including mercury reduction), improved gasification technologies, advanced combustion systems, development of stationary power fuel cells, improved turbines for future coal-based combined cycle plants, and the creation of a portfolio of technologies that can capture and permanently store greenhouse gases. Most FE coal-related research is administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory4 (NETL), which has a focus on creating commercially viable solutions to national energy and environmental problems. In addition to research conducted on-site, NETL’s project portfolio includes R&D conducted through partnerships, cooperative research and development agreements, financial assistance, and contractual