emitted to air, land, and water. While the quantities of coal in Figure 1.8 represent the situation in 2005, the future picture could be quite different. For example, some scenarios described in Chapter 2 indicate a potential for substantial growth in the production of coal-derived liquid and gaseous fuel, requiring a transport infrastructure for distributing such products via pipelines.
Chapter 2 first considers the outlook for U.S. and world coal production and use to set the context for this report. The R&D activities associated with each stage in the coal fuel cycle are then discussed more fully in subsequent chapters:
The first stage of the coal fuel cycle is geological exploration to establish the resource base of coal reserves. Although current estimates of minable coal