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Coal Research and Development: to Support National Energy Policy
FIGURE 4.2 Domestic coal production during the last half century across the United States. SOURCE: EIA (2006a).
of union members, working at 147 mines (EIA, 2005d). The United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) represents the largest number of workers (16.3 percent of the workforce) and the largest number of mines (131) of any of the unions. The average number of workers at a union mine is 140.
COAL MINING AND PROCESSING METHODS
A modern coal mine is a highly mechanized industrial plant that has to meet strict standards of engineering design and operation. The size, power, strength, monitoring and control features, and automation of mining equipment dwarf