diminish if those high-demand areas satisfy much of their growing demand for electricity not by expanding their ability to import electricity from areas where coal is plentiful, but by a combination of energy efficiency, demand response, and local electric generation from sources other than coal.

Both the rail transportation and the electric transmission systems are complex networks in which localized disruptions can have severe and widespread impacts. Research is needed to better understand the factors that control these large and complex networks to minimize the risks of cascading system disruptions.



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