Major Coal Mining and Processing Issues,

 

66

   

 Coal Mining and Processing R&D Programs,

 

71

   

 Findings and Recommendations—Coal Mining and Processing,

 

75

5

 

TRANSPORT OF COAL AND COAL PRODUCTS

 

80

   

 Transportation by Rail,

 

81

   

 Transportation by Truck,

 

84

   

 Waterborne Coal Transportation,

 

84

   

 Transportation of Coal Exports and Imports,

 

86

   

 Electricity Transmission,

 

86

   

 Transport of Coal-Derived Products,

 

88

   

 Findings—Transport of Coal and Coal Products,

 

89

6

 

COAL UTILIZATION

 

91

   

 Coal Utilization Technologies,

 

91

   

 Environmental Impacts of Coal Use,

 

96

   

 Federal Coal Utilization R&D Programs,

 

101

   

 Findings and Recommendation—Coal Utilization,

 

106

7

 

COAL RESEARCH NEEDS AND PRIORITIES

 

108

   

 Societal Issues and Coal,

 

110

   

 Existing Federal Support for Coal-Related R&D,

 

112

   

 Improved Coal Resource, Reserve, and Quality Assessments,

 

116

   

 Research to Support Coal Mining and Processing,

 

118

   

 Transport of Coal and Coal Products,

 

121

   

 Research to Support Coal Utilization,

 

122

   

 Coordination of Coal-Related R&D by Federal Agencies,

 

123

 

 

REFERENCES

 

128

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

 A  Committee and Staff Biographies

 

139

   

 B  Presentations to the Committee

 

145

   

 C  Federal Support for Coal Research

 

148

   

 D  Data Tables: U.S. and World Coal Reserves

 

155

   

 E  Coal Mining and Processing Methods

 

160

   

 F  Acronyms and Abbreviations

 

167

   

 G  Unit Conversion Factors and Energy Ratings

 

170



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