A REVIEW OF THE OCEAN RESEARCH PRIORITIES PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

Committee to Review the Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology’s Research Priorities Plan

Ocean Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy A REVIEW OF THE OCEAN RESEARCH PRIORITIES PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY Committee to Review the Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology’s Research Priorities Plan Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and OCE-0602432 award/grant number from the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11063-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11063-7 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE JSOST RESEARCH PRIORITIES PLAN ROBERT DUCE (Co-Chair), Texas A&M University, College Station NANCY TARGETT (Co-Chair), University of Delaware, Lewes DENISE BREITBURG, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, Maryland DAVID CONOVER, State University of New York, Stony Brook CORTIS COOPER, Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, California CATHERINE CUNNINGHAM BALLARD, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Lansing GERALD GALLOWAY, University of Maryland, College Park ROBERT KNOX, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California WILLIAM KUPERMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JAMES SANCHIRICO, University of California, Davis ANDREW SOLOW, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DENISE STEPHENSON HAWK, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado STAFF SUSAN ROBERTS, Study Director FRANK HALL, Program Officer SUSAN PARK, Program Officer TONI MIZEREK, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow JEFFREY WATTERS, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow JODI BOSTROM, Research Associate NANCY CAPUTO, Research Associate SARAH CAPOTE, Senior Program Assistant

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy OCEAN STUDIES BOARD SHIRLEY A. POMPONI (Chair), Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Ft. Pierce, Florida ROBERT G. BEA, University of California, Berkeley DONALD F. BOESCH, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge JORGE E. CORREDOR, University of Puerto Rico, Lajas KEITH R. CRIDDLE, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Juneau MARY (MISSY) H. FEELEY, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas HOLLY GREENING, Tampa Bay National Estuary Program, St. Petersburg, Florida DEBRA HERNANDEZ, Hernandez and Company, Isle of Palms, South Carolina ROBERT A. HOLMAN, Oregon State University, Corvallis CYNTHIA M. JONES, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia KIHO KIM, American University, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM A. KUPERMAN, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California ROBERT A. LAWSON, Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, California FRANK E. MULLER-KARGER, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg JAY S. PEARLMAN, The Boeing Company, Kent, Washington S. GEORGE H. PHILANDER, Princeton University, New Jersey RAYMOND W. SCHMITT, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ANNE M. TREHU, Oregon State University, Corvallis STAFF SUSAN ROBERTS, Director SUSAN PARK, Program Officer SHUBHA BANSKOTA, Financial Associate PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator JODI BOSTROM, Research Associate

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy Preface Ocean research is a complex and multidisciplinary enterprise. Coordination of such research, to achieve maximum benefit for science and society while minimizing duplication of effort, benefits from broad-based, integrated planning. The committee congratulates the Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology (JSOST) for undertaking, for the first time, a comprehensive planning activity that involved the very diverse ocean community and the many federal agencies that support ocean-related research in the United States. The committee believes that this work has opened the door to an exciting, ambitious, and critically important research effort that is vital for the nation’s future. The plan recognizes that synergies between and within agencies can enhance the outcomes and impacts of ocean science for the benefit of science and society. The task was challenging and difficult, but the final plan articulates a vision for ocean research that will be of great benefit to the ocean sciences community and the nation. David Halpern (U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy), Margaret Leinen (National Science Foundation), and Richard Spinrad (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), the initial co-chairs of the JSOST, approached the National Research Council’s Division on Earth and Life Studies in August 2005 to assist with this research planning effort by reviewing the Ocean Research Priorities Plan in both the draft and the final forms. This document consists of two parts: the committee’s review of the draft plan (Part I) and the committee’s review of the final plan (Part II). In Part I, the committee evaluated the draft Ocean Research Priorities Plan for its responsiveness to the nation’s needs for ocean research and presented its own recommendations for improving the plan. Part I of this report was released to the public on November 30, 2006. The JSOST issued the revised, final Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy on January 26, 2007. For the review of the

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy final plan, the JSOST co-chairs, Julie Morris (National Science Foundation), Richard Spinrad (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), and Daniel Walker (U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy), asked the committee to comment on how the plan evolved in response to input from the ocean community, to suggest mechanisms for ensuring community-wide planning and implementation, and to recommend processes to assess progress on, and re-evaluation of, research priorities. Part II presents the committee’s findings and recommendations on these topics. The committee held three meetings and four conference calls during the preparation of Part I. The committee’s first meeting was held in April 2006 in conjunction with the Denver workshop organized by the JSOST to provide community input into the development of the draft research plan. At this workshop, committee members observed the various breakout sessions that discussed the themes and cross-cut areas outlined in the planning document. At subsequent committee meetings, the committee discussed the draft research plan, wrote Part I of the report, discussed the partial draft plan made available on July 28, 2006, and reviewed the complete draft plan that included the near-term priorities released on August 30, 2006. For Part II, the review of the final Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy, Charting the Course for Ocean Science in the United States for the Next Decade, the committee held one meeting and convened one conference call. The committee and its co-chairs are especially appreciative of the significant support that was forthcoming from the staff of the Ocean Studies Board. Their assistance facilitated the work of the committee and contributed to the formation of an enjoyable and productive working environment. In particular we thank study director Dr. Susan Roberts for her leadership and insight. We also recognize and thank program officer Dr. Susan Park for her assistance throughout the study and program officer Dr. Frank Hall who was involved with the early work of the committee. Ms. Toni Mizerek and Mr. Jeff Watters were a great help during their tenure with the National Research Council as graduate fellows for the Ocean Studies Board. We are also grateful to Ms. Sarah Capote and Ms. Nancy Caputo for their superb skills in organizing the committee meetings and conference calls. The committee feels that the positive, accomplishment-oriented attitudes of each of these individuals enhanced the final outcome of the study. Robert Duce and Nancy Targett, Committee Co-Chairs

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of Part I of this report: LEE G. ANDERSON, University of Delaware, Newark KATHERINE ANDREWS, Coastal States Organization, Washington, D.C. ROBERT G. BEA, University of California, Berkeley PAULA COBLE, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg RUSS E. DAVIS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California EARL H. DOYLE, Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas PAUL G. GAFFNEY, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey EDWARD D. HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons EDWARD LAWS, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge MOLLY MCCAMMON, Alaska Ocean Observing System, Anchorage PETER J. MCCARTHY, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida MARCIA K. MCNUTT, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy ANTHONY F. MICHAELS, University of Southern California, Los Angeles R. KEITH MICHEL, Herbert Engineering Corporation, Alameda, California We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of Part II of this report: KATHERINE ANDREWS, Coastal States Organization, Washington, D.C. EARL H. DOYLE, Shell Oil (retired), Sugar Land, Texas EDWARD D. HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons DEWITT JOHN, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine SALLY MCGEE, Environmental Defense, Mystic, Connecticut ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, University of New Hampshire, Durham RAYMOND W. SCHMITT, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of Part I of this report was overseen by Kenneth H. Brink, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, and Alexander H. Flax, consultant, Columbia, Maryland. The review of Part II of this report was overseen by Garry D. Brewer, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, and Alexander H. Flax, consultant, Columbia, Maryland. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy Contents PART I         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   3     SUMMARY   7 1   INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND   21      Origin of the National Research Council Study,   23      Review of the Draft Ocean Research Priorities Plan,   23 2   DEVELOPMENT OF THE OCEAN RESEARCH PRIORITIES PLAN   25      Addressing the Statement of Task,   28 3   ASSESSMENT OF THE OVERALL PLAN   29      Organization of the Draft Plan,   30      Themes,   34      Priorities,   34      Time Frame,   37      Presentation,   37      Addressing the Statement of Task and Recommendations,   38 4   EVALUATING THEMATIC PRIORITIES AND CROSS-THEME INTEGRATION   41      Stewardship of Our Natural and Cultural Ocean Resources,   47      Increasing Resilience to Natural Hazards,   50      Enabling Marine Operations,   52      The Ocean’s Role in Climate,   55      Improving Ecosystem Health,   59      Enhancing Human Health,   64

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A Review of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy 5   INTERDISCIPLINARY AND MULTI-MISSION OCEAN RESEARCH   69      Implementation,   72      Addressing the Statement of Task and Recommendations,   73 6   EVALUATION OF NEAR-TERM PRIORITIES   75      General Comments,   75      Comments on Specific Near-Term Priorities,   78      Addressing the Statement of Task and Recommendations,   79 7   INFRASTRUCTURE AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL   83      Physical Infrastructure,   83      Information Infrastructure,   84      Intellectual Capital,   85      Addressing the Statement of Task and Recommendations,   86 PART II         SUMMARY   91 1   EVOLUTION OF THE PLAN IN RESPONSE TO COMMUNITY INPUT   97      Response to NRC Review and Public Comments,   98 2   PLANNING, REVIEW, AND IMPLEMENTATION   103      Current Implementation Strategy,   104      Basic Challenges for Community Involvement,   105      Organization of Recommended Processes,   110 REFERENCES   121 APPENDIXES     A  Committee and Staff Biographies   125 B  Acronyms   135