Combinatorial library: Sets of compounds prepared using combinatorial chemistry, which allow scientists to access a wide range of substances and to search for compounds that bind to specific biological and non-biological targets.

Cyclotron: Circular accelerator.

Excitation function: The amount of radionuclide produced is dependent upon the energy of the particle with which the target is bombarded. The yield of the radioactive product versus the energy of the particle is called an excitation function.

Genomics: Describes molecular assessment of the entire genome.

Half-life: The length of time it takes for one-half of the radioactive material to decay by emitting radiation.

Hot atom chemistry: The study of the chemical reactions that occur between high-energy atoms or molecules.

Hypoxia: Shortage of oxygen or reduction in the concentration of oxygen in the environment.

Materials science: An interdisciplinary field comprising applied physics, chemistry, and engineering that studies the physical properties of matter and its applications.

Microfluidics: A multidisciplinary field that studies how fluids behave at microliter and nanoliter volumes and the design of systems in which small volumes of fluids will be used to provide automated sample processing, synthesis, separation, and measurements in devices commonly described by the term “lab-on-a-chip.”

Minimal residual disease: Presence of residual malignant cells, even when few cancer cells can be detected by conventional means (i.e., at subclinical level).

Molecular imaging: Scientific discipline that studies new ways of imaging molecular events and biochemical reactions in a living organism using labeled tracers with high molecular specificity.

Monoclonal antibody: Antibodies that are identical and produced by one type of immune cell.

Nanotechnology: Broad scientific field that creates and uses materials and devices on the nanoscale (i.e., 10−9).

Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that relay signals between the brain and other cells, for example, dopamine and serotonin.

Personalized medicine: Tailoring of strategies to detect, treat, and prevent disease based on an individual’s genetic profile.

Pharmacodynamics: A branch of pharmacology that studies what a drug does to the body.

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