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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. DE-AM01-04PI45013, Task Order DE-AT01-06ER64218 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy and Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11067-X (Book)

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Cover: Photo courtesy of Peter Conti, University of Southern California.

Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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