FIGURE 4.3 The annual mean net radiation balance from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), 1985-1986. Positive values indicate net energy entering the Earth. In order to balance the energy budget, the atmosphere and ocean must transport heat from regions where the net input is positive to regions where it is negative. SOURCE: Graphic by D. Hartmann and M. Michelsen, University of Washington.

FIGURE 4.4 Longwave cloud forcing, the amount by which clouds reduce the escaping thermal emission from Earth, 1985-1986. Positive values indicate that clouds are reducing the thermal energy emission to space, a positive effect on the energy budget. Note the large positive forcing due to the deep convective clouds trapping longwave emission in the tropical West Pacific and Indian Ocean region and over the equatorial continents. SOURCE: Graphic by D. Hartmann and M. Michelsen, University of Washington.



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