6

 

HYDROLOGY

 

50

   

 Precipitation Estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission,

 

50

   

 Seasonal Snow Cover,

 

51

   

 Discovery of Ancient Buried River Channels,

 

54

   

 Analysis of Groundwater from Gravity Data,

 

55

   

 Use of Satellite-Derived Elevation Data in Hydrology,

 

55

7

 

CRYOSPHERE

 

58

   

 Nonuniform and Dynamic Ice Streams in Antarctica,

 

58

   

 Accelerating Ice Sheet Flow in Antarctica and Greenland,

 

59

   

 Declining Arctic Summer Sea Ice,

 

60

   

 Glacier Extent and Position of Equilibrium Line,

 

62

8

 

OCEAN DYNAMICS

 

64

   

 The Ocean’s Role in Climate Change,

 

64

   

 Prevalence of Dynamic Features,

 

66

   

 Understanding Ocean Tides: New Solutions to an Old Scientific Question,

 

68

   

 The Turbulent Ocean,

 

68

   

 Ocean Wind Measurements Reveal Two-Way Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction,

 

71

9

 

ECOSYSTEMS AND THE CARBON CYCLE

 

73

   

 Terrestrial Primary Productivity,

 

73

   

 Marine Primary Productivity,

 

75

   

 Global Marine and Terrestrial Primary Production,

 

78

   

 The Ocean Carbon Cycle,

 

78

   

 Long-Term Ecosystem Record Reveals Atmosphere-Biosphere Coupling,

 

79

   

 Studying Plant Physiology from Space,

 

80

10

 

LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE

 

84

   

 Monitoring Agricultural Lands,

 

85

   

 Estimating Tropical Deforestation,

 

86

   

 Mapping Global Land Cover,

 

86

   

 Mapping Global Fires,

 

86

   

 Understanding Desertification,

 

91

11

 

SOLID EARTH

 

92

   

 Geodesy,

 

92

   

 Structure and Dynamics of Earth’s Deep Interior,

 

92

   

 The Global Positioning System,

 

94

   

 Plate Tectonics, Topography, Seismology, and Volcanology,

 

94

12

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

98

   

 The Emergence of Integrated Earth System Science,

 

98

   

 Integrated Global View of the Carbon Cycle and Climate System,

 

99

   

 Maximizing the Return on Investment in Earth Observations from Space,

 

101

   

 Opportunities for the Future of Earth Observations from Space,

 

105

 

 

REFERENCES

 

107

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

 A  Examples of Scientific Accomplishments and Relevant Satellite Missions

 

121

   

 B  Acronyms

 

123

   

 C  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

 

126



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