participation and extend the benefits to large segments of the population are described in this report.

METHODOLOGY

The methodology used to demonstrate the viability of the business models is called a hypothetical case study. It was originally devised as part of the knowledge assessment methodology prepared by the U.S. National Academies for the World Bank to identify opportunities for developing countries to find niches in global markets by exploiting technologies not yet in use in the countries.

A workshop was held on each of the selected technologies (solar energy, December 8–9, 2005, in Lagos; safe water, December 12–13, 2005, in Lagos; malaria therapy, April 24–25, 2006, in Paris). The workshops were designed to exploit the interactions among international experts and entrepreneurs who had successfully created enterprises based on each technology in similar countries and local scientists and business experts who understood the economic and social environment of Nigeria. The aim of all the participants was to identify the conditions for success and produce a sample business plan and cost estimate for creating an enterprise that would exploit the technology in Nigeria. Nearly all the information used in the report was supplied by the expert and local participants in the workshops. For this reason, the emphasis is not on providing formulas and specifications, which must be checked and updated, but on providing a range of technological choices and the questions that potential entrepreneurs and investors must ask in selecting among those choices. The workshops identified obstacles and proposed solutions to them. When these solutions require action by government, private sector associations, and other institutions, the actions are reflected in the report’s recommendations, which are summarized here and presented in detail in Chapter 5.

THE TECHNOLOGIES

Solar photovoltaic systems are installed in a home or community. The example used by the workshop was the Solar Electric Light Company (SELCO) in Karnataka State, India. For the time being, the solar cells would have to be imported into Nigeria, but small local companies can provide installation and maintenance services. In the SELCO model, maintenance services are very important, and they must be provided on-site and regularly. With the proper consumer credit, the system can be made affordable to poor homeowners and small rural businesses. Recent rises in the cost of the kerosene presently used for lighting in rural vil-



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