have risen; research materials have become more expensive; accounting of materials and equipment has become more rigorous; and grants are less flexible to accommodate visiting scientists and students.
Meanwhile, technological advances such as information technology have made the traditional modes of cooperation less necessary. For example, by means of long-distance learning students can take classes online, and effective collaboration among researchers can be achieved via the Internet, requiring few visits between laboratories. Video teleconferencing is another useful means of linking researchers internationally. The tools of information technology should be deployed to optimize collaboration and productivity in the research effort that will accompany the strategy proposed here.