in Nigeria. In the context of legislation on renewable energy sources, it might give additional impetus to the proposed program.

THE CHALLENGE OF ARTEMISININ COMBINATION THERAPIES

The production of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) by Nigerian companies, even just for the Nigerian market, will probably not be successful without active and purposeful government intervention. Currently, economics is holding back the demand for ACTs. The strategy that has received the most attention by those trying to solve the problem is a global subsidy, which would be applied at the supranational level and would be financed in large part by international donors (see Chapter 3). Only high-quality and appropriate products (probably prequalified by the World Health Organization) would qualify for the subsidy. Should the notion of a subsidy not succeed, it is unclear whether the majority of those seeking malaria treatment will ever have access to these drugs. Today, however, nothing about the proposed subsidy is certain.

Nigerian pharmaceutical companies and public health officials may not be sufficiently aware of developments in the international arena that will affect their plans. The government should play an active role as an information broker—with well-informed international contracting assistance as necessary—to ensure that all interested officials and companies are fully briefed. At the same time, those preparing to cultivate artemisia or to take other steps toward producing ACTs for the Nigerian and world market should be encouraged and assisted.

Whether or not Artemisia annua is grown commercially in Nigeria and Nigerian pharmaceutical companies are able to participate fully in a subsidized distribution system, actions must be taken to ensure that the population is as fully protected as possible. These actions include public campaigns calling for the use of treated bed nets, avoiding counterfeit and ineffective drugs, and draining potential breeding places for mosquitoes.

Recommendations:


The Nigerian government should support private sector participation in the global ACTs market. It should do this by tracking international developments related to the economic and technical requirements of all aspects of ACTs production and establishing formal and informal links to academic, public, and for-profit entities that could play a role in ACT production. The Nigerian Academy of Science could play an important role by convening potential



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