participants for the exchange of information with the government and the international community.

The Nigerian government should ban all counterfeit drugs, illegal clones, low-quality products, and artemisinin monotherapies from the Nigerian market by means of proactive enforcement against illegal activity. It also should prohibit all advertising for such products.

Duties and other impediments to the importation of the equipment, raw materials, solvents, and other materials needed for ACTs research and production should be removed. The Nigerian government should support training and research on the agronomy and selection of the best cultivars of Artemisia annua in collaboration with the global malaria community. Public health laboratories should participate in surveillance to determine the levels of resistance to possible partner drugs for different ACTs formulations.


In every modern society, consumers are confronted by a bewildering array of choices of products and services that affect their health, well-being, and economic security. However, most countries offer little formal training, and so consumers are expected to educate themselves by means of the media, their friends and community, and commercial advertising. Sometimes, consumers receive some reassurance from the public regulatory agencies or the private NGOs that monitor product safety, drug efficacy, and truth in packaging. But when these watchdog agencies are ineffective or absent, or when populations are illiterate or isolated, public agencies must step in and provide more explicit consumer education through the schools or in public campaigns or pronouncements. A prominent example is the series of pronouncements by the U.S. surgeon general on the dangers of smoking, which must be reproduced on all cigarette advertisements in the United States.

An idea that has been put into practice successfully in Africa is a university-to-village extension program. Engineering, nursing, medical, and other professional students “adopt” villages to assist. In doing so, they make frequent visits and provide free service and advice to the villagers on simple solutions to common problems. At the same time, they become sensitive to the villagers’ problems and issues, which serves to make them better professionals and better future citizens. The hands-on work can be integrated into the curriculum to formalize the training and recognize the educational benefits to the students. Such an approach

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