plans and is expected to increase dramatically. This latter source is still not well documented, and from Los Angeles and other port cities’ experiences, the shipping industry is a major contributor to regional air pollution.

Dalian is focusing on air quality research to support dust control policies, but it will also benefit from research on PM2.5, which is primarily from combustion sources. Having a better understanding of the ratio of PM2.5 to total PM, as well as its sources, will help Dalian develop effective strategies to protect human health. NOx and ozone monitoring and research are both in need of more attention, particularly given the large and rapidly increasing vehicle fleet. Considering Dalian’s large service industry, and the amount of building construction taking place, there is a major opportunity to improve building energy efficiency. Building-integrated PV ought to be explored, and efficiency standards should be enforced for all new construction. This is one area in which Dalian could continue to be a national leader in environmental management and policy.

As Dalian expands and local air quality improves, it will need to increase its understanding of regional air quality. This will involve cooperation with other cities in the province, as well as potentially with Korea and Japan. Regional modeling and source apportionment (e.g., Wan et al., 2006) will aid Dalian in developing locally appropriate strategies which benefit regional air quality. Dalian’s strong local science and technology capacity will be an asset in developing and implementing clean energy technologies, as well as research support for its air quality management.


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