plans and is expected to increase dramatically. This latter source is still not well documented, and from Los Angeles and other port cities’ experiences, the shipping industry is a major contributor to regional air pollution.

Dalian is focusing on air quality research to support dust control policies, but it will also benefit from research on PM2.5, which is primarily from combustion sources. Having a better understanding of the ratio of PM2.5 to total PM, as well as its sources, will help Dalian develop effective strategies to protect human health. NOx and ozone monitoring and research are both in need of more attention, particularly given the large and rapidly increasing vehicle fleet. Considering Dalian’s large service industry, and the amount of building construction taking place, there is a major opportunity to improve building energy efficiency. Building-integrated PV ought to be explored, and efficiency standards should be enforced for all new construction. This is one area in which Dalian could continue to be a national leader in environmental management and policy.

As Dalian expands and local air quality improves, it will need to increase its understanding of regional air quality. This will involve cooperation with other cities in the province, as well as potentially with Korea and Japan. Regional modeling and source apportionment (e.g., Wan et al., 2006) will aid Dalian in developing locally appropriate strategies which benefit regional air quality. Dalian’s strong local science and technology capacity will be an asset in developing and implementing clean energy technologies, as well as research support for its air quality management.

REFERENCES

Bai, X. 2002. Industrial relocation in Asia: A sound environmental strategy? Environment 44(5):8-21.

Deng, X.Z., J.Y. Zhan, and R. Chen. 2005. The Patterns and Driving Forces of Urban Sprawl in China. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings, IEEE International, July 25-29.

DEPB (Dalian Environmental Protection Bureau). 2005. The Current Status and Development Plan of Dalian Environment Protection. Presentation to committee on October 28, 2005.

DEPB (Dalian Environmental Protection Bureau). 2007. Dalian Environmental Protection Bureau website, http://www.dlepb.gov.cn (accessed March 15, 2007).

DFTECB (Dalian Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Bureau). 2007. Dalian FTECB website, http://www.dalian-gov.net.

DICP (Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics). 2006. Dalian ICP website, http://www.dicp.ac.cn.

Liu, R. and F. Yang. 2006. Urban Development Directed by Light Rail Transit (LRT): A Case Study of Dalian, China. Proceedings of the 85th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 06-2870, January.

MOST (Ministry of Science and Technology). 2006. China Science and Technology Newsletter No. 437, April 30.

Wan, X.L., J.W. Chen, F.L. Tian, W.J. Sun, F.L. Yang, and K. Saiki. 2006. Source apportionment of PAHs in atmospheric particulates of Dalian: Factor analysis with nonnegative constraints and emission inventory analysis. Atmospheric Environment 40:6666-6675.



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