12
Findings and Recommendations

OVERARCHING FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Learn from experience.

Findings

For the United States, the GDP per capita and the energy use per capita are both several times higher than those for China. These comparisons reflect the cumulative effects of an enormous range of historical activities that contributed to building the U.S. economy. China has embarked on the same path in just the last 25 years and, as economic development has run ahead of pollution control, already is experiencing the adverse health, agricultural, environmental, and quality of life effects which have been largely ameliorated in the United States in the last 30 years.

Recommendations

  1. China should learn from the successes and failures of the United States and other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality. Mistakes already made in the United States and elsewhere should be identified (as this report has attempted to do) and avoided in China.

  2. Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. and Chinese scientists and policy makers should be promoted through professional organizations, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries, to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 321
12 Findings and Recommendations OVERARCHING FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Learn from experience. Findings For the United States, the GDP per capita and the energy use per capita are both several times higher than those for China. These comparisons reflect the cumulative effects of an enormous range of historical activities that contributed to building the U.S. economy. China has embarked on the same path in just the last 25 years and, as economic development has run ahead of pollution control, already is experienc- ing the adverse health, agricultural, environmental, and quality of life effects which have been largely ameliorated in the United States in the last 30 years. Recommendations a. China should learn from the successes and failures of the United States and other deeloped countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air �uality. Mistakes already made in the United States and else�here should be identi��ed (as this report has attempted to do) and aoided in China. b. Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. and Chinese scientists and policy makers should be promoted through professional organizations, goernment support programs, and the National Academies in both countries, to promote joint deelopment of energy and pollution control strategies. 

OCR for page 321
 ENERGY FUTURES AND URBAN AIR POLLUTION 2. �eco�ni�e an�� re�pon�� �o ex�erna�� co��� of ener��� pro���c�ion an�� ��e. �eco�ni�e an�� re�pon�� �o ex�erna�� co��� of ener��� pro���c�ion an�� ��e. Findings An important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost pro- ductivity, as well as through decreased crop yields and ecosystem impacts. Most cost-benefit analyses in the United States show that emission reduction programs provide much greater benefits than their costs (Chapter 3). Emission controls are often less costly to implement than first envisioned. Appropriate programs can lead to economically efficient approaches for improving the environment, reduc- ing costs further. Control costs are not purely costs, as they create opportunities (e.g., manufacturing and sales of pollution control and energy efficient equipment) that result in economic growth. As an example, air pollution control industries in the United States generated $27 billion in revenues and employed 178,000 people in 2001 (Chapter 10). Recommendations a. Both countries need to improe permitting policies and economic mecha� nisms that reflect the external costs of pollution that are being paid by others (e.g., through aderse health effects and degraded �uality of life). These might include the imposition of high enough taxes on emis� sions to make the addition of controls economically attractie, as �ell as rebates or subsidies to encourage use of higher ef��ciency and rene�able technologies. b. Subsidies must be carefully considered �ithin a broader context, so as to aoid conflicting or diergent purposes. Subsidizing one energy source in the name of energy security can hae an impact on other efforts to achiee air �uality goals. 3. ���ab��i��� an�� imp��emen� ��an��ar��� ���a� pro�ec� ���man ��ea�����. ���ab��i��� an�� imp��emen� ��an��ar��� ���a� pro�ec� ���man ��ea�����. Findings Excessive concentrations of SO2, NO2, and Pb have largely been reduced to levels that comply with health standards throughout the United States, but there are still many areas in China where these exceed ambient standards. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) exceed healthful levels in many parts of the United States and China. In terms of premature death, there is roughly a 10 percent increase in adult mortality rates for every 10 µg/m3 of annual-average PM2.5, a 0.25-1 percent increase per 10 µg/m3 24-hour average PM10, and 0.2-0.8

OCR for page 321
 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS percent increase per 10 µg/m3 increase in 1-hour peak ozone (Chapter 3). These require both local and regional emission reductions of directly emitted PM 2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which lead to secondary formation of ozone. Recommendations a. Both the United States and China should adopt minimum standards based on healthful air �uality, �hich may re�uire reising currently accepted standards. Local goernments should be able to enact more stringent local standards, but there should not be a sliding scale based on the leel of economic deelopment. b. Greater efforts are needed to understand and reduce emissions from local sources in China �here these standards are exceeded. These efforts �ould include source apportionment and dispersion modeling studies to determine source contributions, attainment studies to determine the needed emissions reductions, engineering design studies to ealuate con� trol alternaties, enforcement to assure that the controls are implemented, and monitoring at the emissions source and receptor to assure that the reductions are successful. c. Both countries need to ealuate and redesign compliance monitoring net� �orks to better understand the precursor gases and local ersus regional contributions to PM. and O. d. Multiple complementary modeling and data analysis methods need to be applied in both countries to determine major contributors and to ealuate non�linearities in emission reduction efforts. e. Regional emission caps currently in place in both the United States and China should be reexamined, as they may be insuf��cient to attain healthful ambient concentrations. f. PM. control should be emphasized oer, but not at the expense of, PM0 and O reductions. 4. �����re�� po������ion �o�rce� compre��en�i�e����. �����re�� po������ion �o�rce� compre��en�i�e����. Findings Current pollution levels derive from a variety of energy uses and sectors on local and regional scales. All of these sectors must participate in solutions to pol- lution. Current inventories in both countries do not provide an accurate picture of emissions, especially for primary PM2.5 and VOCs. Emission factors and chemical profiles for PM2.5 and VOC derived from U.S. measurements probably do not represent the characteristics of Chinese sources, fuels, and operating conditions.

OCR for page 321
 ENERGY FUTURES AND URBAN AIR POLLUTION As demonstrated in Los Angeles, emission controls can be applied to many small and medium-size sources, including small engine exhaust, solvent use, refueling, ports and shipping, non-electrified locomotives, and vehicle fleets (e.g., buses, taxis, etc.), that collectively have a significant pollution impact (Chapter 10). Available technical expertise, supply bottlenecks, financing, shortsighted economic decisions, and/or political opposition may limit the application of the best available control technology at a given time. Specific technologies, such as selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and hybrid technologies for vehicles, are not yet broadly accepted or understood in China. The media can play a role in popularizing certain technologies (e.g., hybrid vehicles), thus increasing dis- semination and potentially decreasing political opposition. Recommendations a. Emission inentories must continue to be improed in both countries, �ith greater effort placed on deeloping real��orld emission factors that can be related to aailable actiity data for area and mobile sources. b. Emission certi��cation tests, �hile necessary to ealuate ne� engine and industrial designs, do not �ell represent real��orld emission factors. Real� �orld testing methods are proen technology and should be more �idely applied in the United States and China. c. Fuel�based emission factors (i.e., mass of pollutant/mass of fuel consumed) proide a common basis for combustion emissions, are more easily related to aailable actiity data (e.g., fuel sold in a certain area), and allo� comparison among energy sectors. These can be more easily conerted to other actiity measures (e.g., g/km traeled, g/brake�horsepo�er�hour, g/BTU), and should be used in deeloping emissions inentories. d. Emission inentories need to be ealuated and eri��ed by independent means, such as receptor modeling. Special eents (e.g., �ild��res, dust storms, holiday celebrations) need to be included in inentories related to the time and location of occurrence. e. There has to be participation in emissions reductions by all sectors, not just by the major industries. Enforcement and monitoring, as �ell as in� centies, are needed to assure that emission reductions are implemented and maintained. f. Incremental improements should be made �here possible, een if the best emission reduction technology is unaffordable at the current time. g. Goernments must improe policy incenties to adopt speci��c control technologies. Policies re�uiring the implementation of pollution controls are a positie ��rst step, but these policies must be deeloped in tandem �ith appropriate incenties to oercome ��nancial or other barriers.

OCR for page 321
 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. ��ren����en ������ ro��e in o�er�eein� air ��a��i��� p��annin� an�� enforcemen�. ��ren����en ������ ro��e in o�er�eein� air ��a��i��� p��annin� an�� enforcemen�. Findings The United States has strong federal leadership and enforcement (EPA) for the attainment of ambient air quality and emission standards. This resulted from the realization that air pollution crossed political boundaries and that some states and localities were not sufficiently controlling their emissions. EPA maintains 10 regional offices to better interact with state and local agencies. There is a partner- ship between federal, state, and local agencies that addresses different types of emissions, with partial federal financing available to state and local pollution- control agencies. Federal highway funds can be withheld from areas that do not make good faith efforts to attain standards. In China, the central authority (SEPA) plays a minor role in air quality management in cities, with most activities car- ried out by local Bureaus of Environmental Protection (Chapter 4). The provinces have little motivation to reduce emissions that might affect neighboring regions. SEPA has, however, recently exercised more authority by halting construction on certain energy projects. Federal and local energy and air pollution policies need to be better coordi- nated in both countries. Energy policies that appear to solve one set of problems may create other problems in terms of air pollution without this coordination. In the United States, DOE and EPA have primary responsibility for develop- ing these policies, but interaction between the agencies has been limited. Their collaboration on the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency is an example of improved coordination. In China, planning and policy making is even more diffuse, particularly with respect to energy policy. As has been stated elsewhere, pollution prevention through improved coordination is more cost-effective than pollution remediation. Recommendations a. The Chinese goernment needs to expand SEPA�s staff and influence oer local air �uality sureillance, management, and enforcement. Better co� ordination is needed bet�een national and proincial authorities. b. As in the United States, China needs formal emission reduction plans speci��c to cities and regions—plans that are independently ealuated and enforced at the national leel. These plans should specify the actiities that �ill bring areas into compliance �ith standards and that �ill keep areas already in compliance from becoming more polluted. c. More incenties and enforcement for existing pollution reduction rules are needed in China. Penalties for iolating air �uality and emissions standards should not be a minor cost of doing business. Penalties should

OCR for page 321
 ENERGY FUTURES AND URBAN AIR POLLUTION be suf��cient to make it �orth�hile to reduce emissions rather than iolate the la�. d. Enironmental impact should be assessed on each major energy project in China prior to construction. Permits should include air �uality emissions re�uirements. Enforcement should be by an independent agency. Compli� ance or non�compliance should be public. Companies should proide a roide composite analysis report to local goernments. s. e. Agencies should increase the amount of collaboration on issues of energy and air �uality, to ensure that strategies for one sector do not conflict �ith another. 6. �ea��i�e ���e po�en�ia�� of ener��� ef��cienc�� impro�emen��. �ea��i�e ���e po�en�ia�� of ener��� ef��cienc�� impro�emen��. Findings Energy efficiency provides benefits for air quality and energy security while reducing costs. Energy efficiency can provide gains similar to or greater than specific pollution controls and can reduce the need for new power generators. Cost-effective technology is currently available to greatly improve energy effi- ciency across all energy use sectors. Efficiency measures adopted in the United States since 1973 now save $700 billion annually over business-as-usual growth, with little or no burden to the public (Chapter 5). Recommendations a. The United States and China should consider ealuating the best energy ef��ciency standards for all energy sectors that hae been formulated by each country, by their states and proinces, or by other countries. Ef� ��ciency standards, like air �uality standards, �ill need to be properly enforced in order to be effectie. b. Consumer education and incenties should be increased in both countries to encourage the adoption of energy�saing technologies in all energy sectors. 7. �romo�e ef��cien� �ran�por�a�ion �����em� an�� ����ainab��e �rban ��e�i�n. �romo�e ef��cien� �ran�por�a�ion �����em� an�� ����ainab��e �rban ��e�i�n. Findings The rapid growth of traffic in Dalian and in similar Chinese cities will repeat the air quality and energy consumption mistakes of Los Angeles and other U.S. cities if not better managed. Los Angeles actually dismantled its rail system to make way for highways. U.S. transportation and economic development policies

OCR for page 321
 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS have created the need to drive long distances and this is now occurring in China. In many cities the solution was to build more roads, and this pattern in being repeated throughout Chinese cities as well, but it has proven to be insufficient at alleviating congestion and, in some cases, only serves to increase personal vehicle use. Still, the personal vehicle is seen as a status symbol in both countries and is an important industry to both economies; therefore policies will likely need to focus on limiting vehicle miles traveled or improving efficiency, as opposed to limiting ownership through vehicle taxes or permitting fees. Modes such as light rail can greatly improve transportation efficiency and reduce emissions from the transportation sector, but require large up-front investments and are much more difficult to retrofit into an existing transportation infrastructure. Recommendations a. Transit�oriented design and smart gro�th policies should be implemented to deelop ne� urban areas or to redeelop existing areas, particularly in rapidly deeloping cities �ith high projected gro�th. Bus rapid transit (BRT) should be considered in a number of U.S. and Chinese cities, as it represents a lo��cost (relatie to sub�ays and light�rail) transit system easily adapted to existing infrastructure, �ith proen success in other parts of the �orld. b. Congestion pricing should be examined for possible implementation to discourage unnecessary driing in both countries. Parking fees and other disincenties should also be implemented to limit the use of personal e� hicles in urban areas. Incenties such as use of high�occupancy ehicle (HOV) lanes should be considered to promote carpooling and hybrid ehicle use, as some states in the United States hae done. c. Traf��c management systems, such as the system in place in Dalian, should be implemented in other Chinese cities, in order to manage the rapidly expanding ehicle fleets and to limit congestion. 8. �cce��era�e impro�emen�� in f�e�� econom�� an�� re���c�ion� in mobi��e �o�rce �cce��era�e impro�emen�� in f�e�� econom�� an�� re���c�ion� in mobi��e �o�rce emi��ion�. Findings In a 2002 report, The U.S. National Academies examined the effectiveness and impact of the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards legis- lated in 1975, and concluded that they had reduced oil consumption by about 2.8 million barrels per day (6.27 EJ per year), or about 14 percent, and that they had contributed to reduced emissions. China has more aggressive automotive fuel economy standards than the United States, which, if enforced, could do much

OCR for page 321
 ENERGY FUTURES AND URBAN AIR POLLUTION to contain rising motor vehicle fuel demands and to reduce emissions. Hybrid vehicles represent an opportunity to significantly improve fuel efficiency in both countries. It is noted in the 2002 report, however, that other approaches, such as higher fuel taxes, tradable credits for fuel economy improvements, taxes on light-duty vehicles that fall below CAFE standards combined with rebates for vehicles exceeding the standards and/or standards based on vehicle attributes, such as weight, size, or payload—might be more successful at improving fuel economy (Chapter 5). New vehicle emission standards remain too weak in China in spite of sig- nificant progress. Fuel quality remains poor, especially diesel fuel (Chapter 4). PM filters have been demonstrated in California and elsewhere to be very cost- effective for removing particulate, but require ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Goods movement (shipping, trucking) is a large emitter that is not well documented or controlled in either country. The San Pedro Bay ports of Los Angeles and of Long Beach estimate that port-related vessels and vehicles account for 12 percent of the region’s PM, 9 percent of NOx, and 45 percent of SOx. California has set a target reduction of 85 percent diesel PM exposure (from 2000 to 2020), in spite of a projected tripling of container traffic, and has set aside $1 billion for a mitigation fund (Chapter 10). Recommendations a. The United States should examine the present CAFE standards or alterna� tie incenties to improing fuel economy, to deelop standards tailored to the U.S. market and ehicle stock. b. China should enforce their fuel economy standards and consider other, possibly more effectie alternaties as �ell. c. Higher initial cost appears to be a major impediment to hybrid ehicles penetrating the market, and thus goernments should consider preferential policies, such as tax deductions for indiiduals (as the United States has done) and goernment purchasing policies (such as Pittsburgh�s), �hich may be most effectie in China, gien the high proportion of goernment� o�ned ehicles. d. China should continue to increase its ehicle emission standards and to enforce those standards; China should also improe the �uality of its re��ned fuels. e. Additional measures should be implemented to reduce emissions from shipping and the moement of shipped goods to and from the ports in Dalian and in other Chinese and U.S. ports. Key stakeholders must be inoled in designing, implementing, and ealuating these measures �ithin a collaboratie organizational structure for port pollution reduction.

OCR for page 321
 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 9. �mpro�e ener��� ef��cienc�� in b�i����in��. �mpro�e ener��� ef��cienc�� in b�i����in��. Findings Buildings are large energy users, especially for electricity and natural gas for heating. Therefore, they also represent a significant opportunity for energy savings (Chapter 5). “Green building” guidelines have been developed and shown to have paybacks on initial investments of 1-2 years. Lighting costs and power station emissions could be greatly reduced by using fluorescent lighting and by making better use of natural sunlight. In the United States, many energy-saving technolo- gies and methods were developed in response to the 1972 oil embargo, but these were largely undone or undermined by utility deregulation in the 1990s. However, these experiences with demand-side management, integrated resource planning, and energy efficiency mandates are instructive and will be necessary components in future reductions of energy consumption. Examples include providing general information on energy efficiency opportunities, site-specific information involv- ing facility inspections and rebates, or low-interest loans to implement specific efficiency measures. Recommendations a. Building codes in both countries should be updated to re�uire energy� saing technologies, for example, combined cooling, heating, and po�er (CCHP). b. Subsidies, incenties, and lo��cost ��nancing should be enhanced in both countries to encourage up�front inestments in energy�ef��cient technolo� gies that �ill be paid back in future cost saings. c. Both countries should allo� or encourage utilities to decouple pro��ts from energy sales. This is occurring to some degree in the United States, but needs to be accelerated and must be implemented in China. 10. �romo�e c��eaner �ec��no��o�ie� for ��ea� an�� po�er �enera�ion. �romo�e c��eaner �ec��no��o�ie� for ��ea� an�� po�er �enera�ion. Findings Coal combustion will be a major component of energy production into the foreseeable future in the United States and China, owing to its abundance in both countries, which ameliorates energy security concern, its low relative cost and the longer lead time which would be required to develop a large scale alternate energy supply. Coal is primarily used to produce electricity, but it can also be used to create gaseous and liquid fuels as well as other feedstocks. Most trains are elec- trified in China, thus transportation is an important consumer of coal-generated

OCR for page 321
0 ENERGY FUTURES AND URBAN AIR POLLUTION power. Coal-fired generators operate for 50 years or more, and, therefore, deci- sions made today to install low-efficiency power sets will take many decades to correct in the future (Chapter 6). Polygeneration plants provide an opportunity to efficiently provide power and coal-based liquid fuels. However, coal-based liquid fuels have not demonstrated reduced emissions vis-à-vis alternative fuels such as biofuels. Harnessing methane from coal mines has a number of co-benefits: it provides an additional source of energy for residential heat and power, removes an air pollutant and potent greenhouse gas from circulation before it reaches the atmosphere, and decreases a major safety risk associated with coalmine accidents. Recommendations a. Incenties are needed in the United States and China to implement cleaner coal conersion technologies (e.g., IGCC), more ef��cient generation meth� ods, and productie use of �aste heat. b. Coal �ashing and sieing rules should be implemented and enforced in all sectors of the coal industry in China, to reduce SO and to increase combustion ef��ciency. c. Residential/commercial coal burning should be further reduced in China by energy conseration measures and through replacement by natural gas or biogas. d. Follo�ing the example of cities such as Huainan, coal�rich areas should implement systems to recoer and make effectie use of coalbed methane ffectie (CBM) and coke�oen gas. e. Polygeneration plants must be considered �ithin a frame�ork account� ing for possible carbon mitigation re�uirements in the future. Producing coal�based li�uid fuels must be �eighed against other potentially cleaner alternatie fuel options, such as biofuels. 11. ���an in a���ance for po������ion con�ro��. ���an in a���ance for po������ion con�ro��. Findings It is less costly to plan for and implement pollution controls up front than to install them later. Due to lack of knowledge of pollution effects and controls, the United States didn’t act early enough to provide for emission controls on station- ary and mobile sources. Retrofitting or closing down old industries, changing vehicle fleets, remodeling buildings, and changing attitudes has been costly and is not yet complete in the United States (Chapter 6).

OCR for page 321
 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations a. Better ealuation tools need to be deeloped and promulgated, speci��c to the United States and China, �hich assist project designers in ealuating the costs and bene��ts of different energy conseration/pollution control alternaties. b. Projects need to be planned �ith the expectation that pollution controls and retro��ts may be re�uired, or deemed economical, in the future, een if bene��ts do not exceed the costs by today�s standards. c. Analyses are needed to ealuate total energy ef��ciency and pollution effects for the project�s entire life cycle: material extraction/manufacturing, transportation, construction, use, and disposal. Enironmental economics tools are also needed to perform these analyses on a recursie basis for the project�s impacts on regional and national leels. d. Since po�er plants hae long life expectancies, ade�uate physical space and technological compatibility must be built in for future retro��ts and conersions to cleaner and/or zero emissions technologies, adanced pol� lution abatement, and carbon capture technologies. e. National and state/proincial goernments should consider establishing capitalization funds to ��nance future improements and retro��ts for pol� lution controls. 12. �cce��era�e ��e�e��opmen� an�� ��e of rene�ab��e ener��� �o�rce�. �cce��era�e ��e�e��opmen� an�� ��e of rene�ab��e ener��� �o�rce�. Findings Renewable energy sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, waste-to- energy, and biofuels constitute important, but not large, fractions of energy portfolios in both countries. Several applications, such as solar water heating and wind-generated power, are economical in the long term, but require large up-front investments and have benefited in many cases from various financial incentives (Chapter 7). In terms of baseload generation, hydropower may continue to be the only reliable renewable energy source for decades. Wind-power capacity will continue to increase rapidly in both countries, but it will nonetheless continue to be an intermittent resource, as will solar energy. Renewable technologies can play an important role in distributed generation systems and thus represent a “no- regrets” choice as they replace a portion of energy supply which might otherwise have been provided by fossil fuel combustion. It is unclear whether some biofuels, including non-cellulose ethanol production, provide more renewable energy than they consume in non-renewable energy for their production.

OCR for page 321
 ENERGY FUTURES AND URBAN AIR POLLUTION Recommendations a. Both countries should continue to encourage the deelopment, production and use of rene�able energy �hereer possible, through arious policy instruments (i.e., rene�able portfolio standards, tax rebates, preferential purchasing). b. Both countries should support industrial�scale demonstrations to proe that cellulosic ethanol can be continuously economically iable, at a large scale. Early research appears promising, but is not yet conclusie. 13. �xpan�� p�b��ic par�icipa�ion in ���ine�e air ��a��i��� mana�emen� effor��. �xpan�� p�b��ic par�icipa�ion in ���ine�e air ��a��i��� mana�emen� effor��. Findings While much data and information about emissions, ambient concentrations, and energy use are publicly available in the United States (many of them over the Internet), such data are often sequestered in China (Chapter 4). Public and scientific scrutiny of these data have improved their quality and utility over time. The EPA has gone to great expense to convert older data management methods to modern web-based systems. Many of these modern concepts can be applied in China. Although China has made progress in reporting air quality indices to the public, the data needed for successful energy and air quality management are still difficult to obtain and analyze. Reasonably accurate air quality forecast methods have been developed in the United States for public dissemination. Increasing public use is made of these forecasts to make personal decisions concerning exercise, travel, and health pro- tection for susceptible populations. These forecasts are also used in the United States for intermittent pollution controls, such as domestic and agricultural burn- ing restrictions and reduced driving periods. Forecasts are being implemented on a national basis using numerical simulations, and on a local basis for several cities using both empirical and prognostic models. Non-governmental environmental advocates play a large role in promoting energy efficiency, renewable energy, and pollution reductions in the United States (Chapter 8), but not yet in China. Citizens’ groups in the United States have also helped enforce pollution-control laws through the courts. Their activity is predi- cated on access to environmental information. China has growing numbers of NGOs working on environmental issues. In particular, Dalian has some volunteer groups dedicated to improving the environment.

OCR for page 321
 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations a. SEPA needs to conince public of��cials that the adantages of disseminat� ing energy use, emissions, and air �uality data out�eigh the disadan� tages. Such transparency �ill result in better data �uality, by proiding feedback on de��ciencies to data generators. b. Web�based data systems should be established in China to ac�uire, ali� date, and distribute air �uality and meteorological data. c. China should improe national and local air �uality forecasting methods to better inform the public and to implement supplemental control mea� sures during high�pollution periods. d. SEPA and proincial agencies in China should continue to increase their efforts in outreach and education to engage the public in helping address air pollution problems, and to encourage public participation in eniron� mental impact studies and decisions affecting the enironment. e. China should increase its efforts to enable citizens to use the country�s legal system to address the harm they hae suffered from unreasonable leels of pollution. f. Local goernments in China should encourage more olunteer groups focused on improing the enironment. 14. �mpro�e capaci��� �o a����re�� c�rren� an�� f���re i���e� ���ro���� re�earc�� �mpro�e capaci��� �o a����re�� c�rren� an�� f���re i���e� ���ro���� re�earc�� an�� e���ca�ion. Findings Both countries have benefited from research, development, and technology transfer efforts in their universities, research institutes, and professional asso- ciations related to methods of energy production, pollution control, atmospheric processes, measurement systems, and simulation models (Chapters 4 and 8-11). These efforts also provide local expertise for states and provinces and train profes- sionals needed for regulatory, industrial, and educational enterprises. Each country can benefit from the research and development results of the other. Improved environmental and energy education and training is needed at all levels in both the United States and China. Outreach is needed to plant managers, engineers, technicians, workers, school children, parents, and regulatory agencies. University engineering programs need a quantitative component that addresses energy and pollution control options. Pittsburgh distributes public awareness bro- chures for cleaner biomass heating practices. Los Angeles publishes comic book- type instructional material on enforcement programs. The EPA has sponsored focused training courses, as have universities and professional associations.

OCR for page 321
 ENERGY FUTURES AND URBAN AIR POLLUTION Recommendations a. Both countries need to strengthen research and deelopment in clean energy, energy ef��ciency, and air �uality research. There is also a need for improed research across disciplines, in order to better understand the linkages bet�een energy and air �uality. b. Research funding agencies in both countries should support formal bi� lateral programs that encourage joint efforts among U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. c. As in the United States, expertise needs to be deeloped in proincial uniersities and research centers that do not yet hae energy and eniron� mental programs. The large research uniersities centered in the major eastern cities cannot accomplish all that is needed. d. SEPA, proincial agencies, uniersities, and Chinese professional organi� zations need to create outreach materials and to conduct training sessions at all academic leels. e. Chinese cities need to deelop local and regional technical training cen� ters and professional education centers, in order to build the capacity to operate and maintain pollution controls and adanced technologies. 15. �xpan�� coopera�ion on ener��� an�� air ��a��i��� i���e��� inc�����in� effor�� �o �xpan�� coopera�ion on ener��� an�� air ��a��i��� i���e��� inc�����in� effor�� �o re���ce �reen��o��e �a� emi��ion�. Findings In the fields of energy and air quality, there are a number of topics on which the United States and China can usefully collaborate. Numerous activities are already ongoing, between government agencies, universities, NGOs, research institutions, and within the private sector. These cooperative activities under- score the important strategic relationship between the United States and China, highlight our common interests in energy and air quality issues, and provide an opportunity to not only share lessons learned from the U.S. experience, but also to jointly address new and emerging challenges as both countries make a transition to sustainability. In addition to potential health and environmental benefits, there are also important economic benefits, as both countries represent large domestic markets for technologies and products. Recommendations a. Gien the existing interest in climate change, it is imperatie that the United States and China begin substantial cooperation on issues to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to energy ef��ciency, there

OCR for page 321
 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS is great potential for collaboratie research on improing CO capture and se�uestration technologies. b. Energy ef��ciency cooperation should be taking place in all sectors, includ� ing national and local goernments implementing ef��ciency codes and standards, industries instituting more ef��cient practices, and research on further improements in technologies. c. China �ill bene��t from further cooperation on deeloping regional air �uality management. Future actiities should complement the ongo� ing �ork bet�een Guangdong and Hong Kong, and efforts to deelop SEPA�s regional of��ces. Research uniersities and goernments should also increase collaboration on measuring and monitoring PM. and O, as �ell as air �uality forecasting. d. As China begins mandating speci��c control technologies, it �ill be useful for the t�o countries to enhance programs focused on technology transfer and capacity building. The latter is critical, since installed technologies must be properly operated and maintained in order to be effectie; this �ill almost certainly necessitate regional actiities to engage local operators from the numerous cities throughout China. e. Coal gasi��cation appears to be in the interest of both countries, and therefore additional cooperation is needed to better apply technologies already in use for industrial purposes to commercial po�er generation. f. The future �ill depend on reliable and affordable forms of rene�able energy, and thus as the �orld�s t�o largest energy consumers, the United States and China should enhance their collaboration on R&D for rene�� able energy technologies, both bet�een NDRC and DOE, and �ithin partnerships inoling other research institutions and the priate sector.

OCR for page 321