TABLE C-1 Summary of PM Source Apportionment Studies Using CMB and Other Receptor Models in China

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Study, Location, Period, and Measurements

Source Apportionment Method

Findings

 

Northern China

 

 

 

Reference: Beijing PM2.5 study (Zhang Y.H. et al., 2004)

When: 24-h samples were acquired during April 25-30, 2000, August 18-25, 2000, October 30-November 4 and January 9-14, 2001.

Where: Three sites include Beijing Union University (BUU), Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM), and Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES).

Ambient: Samples were acquired with a MOUDI-100 impactor, A-245 dichotomous sampler and a PM2.5 sampler and a self-developed sampler. The samples were analyzed for mass, 19 elements (by ICP-AES), ions (NO3, SO42−, and NH4+ by IC), carbon (OC and EC by NIOSH), and organic compounds (including PAHs by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry).

Source: No area-specific source profile measurements were taken.

Solution: CMB

Average CMB-calculated source contribution to PM2.5 (in % mass):

Source Type

Annual

Coal combustion

16.4

Vehicle exhaust

5.6

Construction dust

3.3

Fugitive dust

18.1

Biomass burning

4.5

Secondary sulfate and nitrate

9.6

Organic matter

15.0

Unexplained

27.5

Average measured PM2.5 mass (μg m−3)

122

Number in Average

Not reported



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